Biological Macromolecules ( Biomolecules ) Essay

759 Words Feb 8th, 2015 4 Pages
Chapter 2: Biological Macromolecules (Biomolecules) in Living Systems
Organic Molecules: are composed of long chains or rings of carbon atoms which are found in living systems.
Inorganic Molecules: are of a simple structure which is not found in living systems.
Biological Macromolecules (Biomolecules): are the result of organic molecules which consist primarily of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. Composed of thousands of atoms, biological macromolecules are polymers formed by a series of repeated monomers. There are four significant classes of biological macromolecules; Lipids, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids and Proteins.
Lipids: are molecules which occur naturally and aid in the structural components of cell membranes, signaling and energy storage. Insoluble in water and polar solvents, lipids are soluble in non-polar solvents. The four leading components of lipids are Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Steroids and Eicosanoids.
Triglycerides: crucial to storage of energy, consist of three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule which are formed during a dehydration synthesis. Triglycerides are hydrophobic; insoluble to water.
Phospholipids: instrumental in the formation of cell membranes consisting of amphipathic molecules. Phospholipids are similar to triglycerides; however they contain only two fatty acids with the third occupied by an electrically charged molecule which is hydrophilic and soluble in both water and fat, commonly referred to as an emulsifier.

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