Another internal factor is the hidden curriculum which is theorised by Marxist sociologists. The hidden curriculum refers to what’s taught in schools but does not conform to the official curriculum and which is not openly discussed or agreed upon. Examples of these are obedience, politeness and equality. There is an unspoken agreement, for example, that if you look at which students constitute the bottom sets in school, that they will be primarily working class boys.
Lastly, pupil subcultures are an internal factor that affects achievement. Subcultures are the end result of the labelling process as those who are mainly the working class end up in anti-school subcultures and those with positive, mainly the middle class