A Protocol Is Used For Communication Between Entities Within Different Systems

773 Words Oct 13th, 2016 4 Pages
A protocol is used for communication between entities in different systems. The terms entity and system are used in a very general sense. For two entities to communicate successfully, they must “speak the same language.” What is communicated, how it is communicated, and when it is communicated must conform to mutually agreed conventions among the entities involved. The conventions are referred to as a protocol, which may be defined as a set of rules governing the exchange of data between two entities.
Two protocol architectures have served as the basis for the development of interoperable protocol standards: the TCP/IP suite and the OSI reference model. TCP/IP is by far the most widely used interoperable architecture. There are five relatively independent layers: application layer, transport layer, internet layer, data link layer, physical layer. A number of applications have been standardized to operate in the application layer, such as Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), SSH (Secure Shell), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) and SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). At the transport layer, TCP is the most commonly used protocol. TCP is implemented only in the end systems; it keeps track of the blocks of data being transferred to assure that all are delivered reliably to the appropriate application. The Internet Protocol (IP) is used at this layer to provide the routing function across multiple networks. The data link layer covers…

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