Compare And Contrast The Various Forms Of Bullying

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2.3 FORMS OF BULLYING
There are different types of bullying and different behaviours that are considered as bullying. Olweus (1993) split bullying into two types, direct and indirect.
Direct bullying involves verbal and physical attacks. Purposeful and unnecessary physical attacks are generally recognized as bullying. Physical bullying comprises aggressive acts such as kicking, hitting, tripping or the destruction of a person’s property whilst verbal bullying consist name calling, insults, threats, teasing, sexual harassment or racist language (Olweus, 1993).

Indirect bullying is where there is no direct confrontation. Bullying of this kind usually involves a third party and may mostly transpire behind the victim’s back. This is meant to damage
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According to Banks (1997: p. 4), “bullying is a serious problem that can dramatically affect the ability of students to progress academically and socially”. Other authors have observed that victims of bullying had lower scores on social acceptance, scholastic competence and global self-worth than non-bullied students (Kochenderfer & Ladd, 1996).
Mishna’s study of children and youth in Ontario shows that students who are involved in bullying have decreased motivation and may experience poor academic achievement (Mishna, 2003). The results of the study indicate that victimized children reported feeling afraid in school, reacting negatively toward school and consequently avoiding school more often than their peers. At the end of the day, bullying victims lack the ability to learn because of safety issues. Fear and anxiety may become an everyday part of lives of the students who are being bullied, as they go to great effort to avoid bullies and the places they are frequently bullied. Increased The fear contributes to dropout rates. Victims of bullying may lose interest in learning and experience a drop in academic grades because their attention is distracted from learning with frequent absences and poor school
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Those who are directly or indirectly involved in bullying are at risk of experiencing academic problems, discipline problems, truancy, dropping out. However, it was only the aggressive victims who were likely to be characterized by poor school performance.
Bystanders who repeatedly witness victimization of peers can experience negative effects similar to the victimized children themselves. They may also feel guilty for not helping, or fearful that they will be the next target. Lower achievement scores were associated with being a victim or bully-victim (Glew, Fan, Katon, Rivara & Kernic, 2005). In other words, students who reported being bullied showed lower academic achievements than their non-bullied peers.
Duncan (1999) indicated that victims of bullying are affected physically, academically and socially. These limitations hinder a student's ability to interact and communicate with other students. Academic problems lead to difficulties such as poor self-esteem, frustration and other barriers to developing social skills. Thus, bullying creates barrier to learning with negative consequences on

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