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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Freud's Systems of Personality: Id
- present at birth

- unconscious

- seek pleasure and avoid pain

- instant gratification
Freud's Systems of Personality: Superego
- ages 5-6

- all 3 levels

- conscience

- right & wrong

- perfectionist

- societal & parental aspect
Freud's Systems of Personality: Ego
- all 3 levels

- controls id & superego

- delayed gratification

- 5-6 years old

- reality principle
Ego Defense Mechanisms: Repression
involuntarily removing bad memories & suppressing sexual/aggressive impulses
Ego Defense Mechanisms: Projection
attributing own motives on others (undesirable impulses or traits)
Ego Defense Mechanisms: Denial
refusal to acknowledge existence of danger/threat
Ego Defense Mechanisms: Rationalization
supplying logical/rational reason instead of real reason
Ego Defense Mechanisms: Regression
reverting to the a behavior of earlier development
Ego Defense Mechanisms: Reaction formation
expressing exaggerated ideas/emotions that oppose impulses and desires
Ego Defense Mechanisms: Displacement
Substituting less threatening object for original object of impulse
Ego Defense Mechanisms: Sublimation
rechanneling sexual/aggressive energy into socially acceptable behavior

***only healthy one***
Ego Defense Mechanisms: Identification
taking on someone else's characteristics
Ego Defense Mechanisms: Intellectualization
distancing self from uncomfortable impulses by looking at them abstractly
Stages of Psychosexual Development: Oral
- 0-1 years
- mouth
- weaning/oral gratification
- optimism, dependence, gullibility, pessimism, passivity, hostility, sarcasm, aggression
Stages of Psychosexual Development: Anal
- 1-3 years
- anus
- toilet training, gratification from expelling/withholding feces
- cleanliness, orderlineess, stinginess, messiness, rebelliousness, destructiveness
Stages of Psychosexual Development: Phallic
- 3-6 years
- genitals
- Oedipal conflict, sexual curiosity, masturbation
- flirtatiousness, vanity, promiscuity, pride, chastity
Stages of Psychosexual Development: Latency
- 6-puberty
- period of sexual calm, focus on school, hobbies, same-sex friends
Stages of Psychosexual Development: Genital
- puberty+
- genital
- revival of sexual interests
- establishment of mature sexual relationships
Neo-Freudians: Carl Jung
- analytic psychology

- expanded unconscious

- ego, personal unconscious, collective unconscious (from archetypes in dreams)

- archetypes: persona, shadow, anima/animus

- introverted/extroverted (components of both, one dominates)

- midlife crisis
Neo-Freudians: Alfred Adler
- inferiority complex

- birth order hypothesis

- perfectionism
Neo-Freudians: Karen Horney
- took issue with Freud's phallocentrism

- environmental/social factors, childhood relationships
Bandura's Reciprocal Determinism
- Behavior, environment, and traits interact

- self efficacy: personal belief that you are capable of performing behaviors to achieve goals
Rotter's Locus of Control
- master of your own destiny (internal) vs. fate/luck/God (external)
Problems arise from incongruence between self & ideal self
Big 5
Openness to Experience

- measured by Costa & McCrae: NEO Personality Inventory
Big 5: Conscientiousness
responsible vs. careless
Big 5: Agreeableness
friendly vs. cold
Big 5: Neuroticism
anxious vs. easy-going
Big 5: Openness to Experience
curious vs. dull
Big 5: Extroversion
outgoing vs. introverted
Culture & Personality
Individualist vs. collectivist, different in all parts of the world, but all want to enhance self esteem
Personality Assessment
- Observation, Interviews, Rating Scales

- Personality Inventories

- Projective Tests
Personality Assessment: Observation, Interviews, Rating Scales
- Observation (Behaviorists): time-consuming, may influence behavior

- Interviews: unstructured and structured (free-flowing vs. predetermined questions and order)

- Rating Scale: standard format, rate different traits
Personality Assessment: Personality Inventories
- paper & pencil tests, answer questions about self

- MMPI: most widely used, updated, scales for faking

- CPI: sane person's MMPI, employment

- MBTI: Jung's theory, 4 dimensions - bipolar, business
Personality Assessment: Projective Tests
- indirect way to determine personality

- Rorschach tests (strict interpretation rules)

- ambiguous statements to determine theme

- Thematic Apperception Test - vague (show a photo, "tell me a story about this" OR sentence completion)
Types of interviews
Unstructured vs. structured

free-flowing vs. predetermined
Most commonly used inventory
Most commonly used projective test
Prevalence of mental disorder
22:1 compared to cancer every year

50% if U.S. will be diagnosed w/ mental disorder
Treatment w/ Five Perspectives
- Biological: drug therapy, ECT, psychosurgery

- Psychodynamic: counseling, psychoanalysis

- Learning: operant conditioning, classical conditioning, modeling

- Cognitive: cognitive therapy

- Biopsychosocial: combination
Anxiety Disorders
- most common

- Generalized Anxiety Disorder: vague but intense fears

- Panic Disorders: terror attacks

- Phobias: excessive fears

- OCD: recurring thoughts, repetitive actions

- Social Phobia: fear of public embarrassment
Obsessions vs. compulsions
Recurring thoughts vs. repetitive behaviors
Mood Disorders: Major Depressive Disorder
- overwhelmed by sadness and apathy, loss of appetite and concentration, may be suicidal

- women greater risk after puberty, men before

- Asian countries less MDD

- "common cold" of psychological disorders
Mood Disorders: Bi-Polar Disorder
- equal to men & women, more hereditary

- mania and depression

- many creative people
Suicide gender differences
Women try more (O.D.) but men succeed more (firearms)
Schizophrenia - symptoms
Positive symptoms (presence): delusions, hallucinations, inappropriate behaviors and thoughts, disorganized speech

Negative symptoms (absence): flat affect (no emotion), limited speech, avolition
Types of Schizophrenia
1. Paranoid - suspicious, delusions, emotions intact

2. Disorganized (earliest onset) - bizarre & childlike, flat/inappropriate affect

3. Catatonic: waxy flexibility, alternate between frozen and active

4. Undifferentiated: none or 1 or more of the above, catchall
Risk factors of schizophrenia
- Genetics
- Too much stress that a person can't handle
- environmental factor (birth trauma, head injury, etc.)
Somatoform Disorders
- Hypochondriasis: interprets small symptom as sign of serious disease

- Conversion disorder: bizarre symptoms (wake up paralyzed, blind, deaf, seizures, etc.), think "oh, well, I can live with this," trauma is so bad that the condition is an improvement
Dissociative Disorders
- Dissociative amnesia: loss of memory w/ no organic cause

- Dissociative fugue: leaves home and assumes a new identity, very rare

- Dissociative Identity Disorder (formerly MPD): separate people w/ different memories, voices, etc. (96% women, 95% of them were severely abused)
Personality Disorders
- learned early in life and cause distress

- Cluster A (odd, may be quasi-schizo)

- Cluster B (dramatic, may be quasi-mood)

- Cluster C (anxious, quasi-anxiety)
Psychoanalysis Techniques
- Insight: understanding of behavior so they can change

- Relationship: interpersonal communication

- Behavior: learned behavior

- Cognitive: Thoughts

- Biological: Drug/ECT/psychosurgery
Brief Psychodynamic therapy
Just as effective
Humanistic Therapies
- unconditional positive regard, fully-functioning client

- gestalt: get in touch with your feelings
Interpersonal therapy problems


life changes

Behavior therapies
Operant: token economics, exchange for goods and services later/time out - will lose reinforcements

Classical: systematic desensitization (over time), flooding (all at once), exposure & response prevention (10 sessions better than drugs alone for OCD & PTSD), aversive therapy and conditioning (eliminate unwanted behavior with pain)

Participant Modeling: watch others perform desired behavior
Cognitive therapies
ABC: Activating Event, Belief, Consequence (B is real problem, not A / replace irrational with rational)
Drug therapies
Most-used method of biological

Antipsychotics good for schizo, reduce hallucinations and delusions (disadvantage: muscle twitching) / traditional: decrease positive (tardive diskinesia), atypical - reduce positive & negative

Antidepressants: tricyclics (weight gain), SSRIs (decreased sex drive), MAOI (better for atypical symptoms, not good for mixing)

Lithium & anticonvulsants

Wonder drug for bipolar, but slow
Largest selling drug for anxiety
Tranquilizers (Xanax)
for depression that does not respond to other therapies

no unilateral (right hemisphere)

RTMS another option (Rapid Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation)
Prefrontal lobotomy not used often today

Cingulotomy - drastic and irreversible