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27 Cards in this Set

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What were the three informative messages under the different conditions in the Iowa gambling task?
Informative messages:
Control: “Some decks are better than others”
Positive: “Decks C and D give more in the long run”
Negative: “Decks A and B give less in the long run”
What were the results of Decision quality & message effectiveness in the Iowa gambling task.
Control:worst
Positive: middle
Negative: Best
From the findings Iowa Gambling task, which brain region is responsible for ( Overall Risk Perception)
left Medial Frontal Gyrus/
Anterior Cingulate Cortex
From the findings Iowa Gambling task, which brain region is responsible for (Top-down cognitive control)
left Middle Frontal Gyrus/
Inferior Frontal Gyrus
From the findings Iowa Gambling task, which brain region is responsible for ( Experience)
right Inferior Frontal Operculum
From the findings Iowa Gambling task, which brain region is responsible for ( Positively-framed messages)
right anterior Insula
How do informative messages influence the evaluation of risk during decision making?
Messages additive with experience.
Positive messages increase perceived risk of bad
options.
What brain areas mediate the effectiveness of
informative messages?
Anterior insula via Anterior cingulate
Motivation for Iowa Study (Bechara et al., 1994).
Billions of dollars spent to reduce illegal drug use
using Public Service Announcements. Yet, little or no demonstrable effect in producing
behavior change among adolescent and at-risk
groups. Need better understanding of how persuasive
messages work.
From the Iowa gambling task, what connection can we see between expected emotions and decision making?
Predictions of expected emotions were
necessary for good decision making

Predictions of expected emotions were
necessary for good decision making

Patients with damage to orbital frontal cortex
could not generate expected emotions, and overemphasized immediate reward over
long‐term outcomes
Iowa Gambling Task design
Compared control participants and patients
with damage to orbital frontal cortex

Measured anxiety through (SCRs)
Do dopamine neurons report an error in the prediction of a reward.
Activity of midbrain dopamine
neurons codes errors in the
prediction of reward.
Where do midbrain dopamine neurons project to in the brain.
From the substantia nigra to the basal ganglia via the mesonstriatal system.

From the ventrail tegmental area to the prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) via the Mesolimbocortial system.
What is the Reciprocal relationship of dopamine
signal and error‐related negativity?
When something better than expected occurs: Prediction error > 0
Dopamine signal increases
ERN decreases

When something worse than expected occurs:
Prediction error < 0
Dopamine signal decreases
ERN increases

Prediction Error = 0 when the outcome happens as it is expected to.
Coglab Decision Making Design
5 decision‐making problems (Problem 1 – 5)
2 choices for each problem (Choice A & Choice B)
2 versions of each problem (Set 1 & Set 2)
Between‐subjects design (Some participants
saw Set 1, other participants saw Set 2)
What theory does the Coglab on decision making demonstrate? How does it represent this?
the tenants of Prospect Theory (Kahneman &
Tversky, 1984)

For each of 5 problems, there were 2 versions:
–Identical absolute outcomes
–With different framing of the problem and/or options
–Led to very different patterns of choice
What were the findings of the Coglab on decision making.
People use "mental accounting" when making decisions on relative outcomes subjective decision weights.



They do not use ob
What is Kahneman & Tversky's Prospect Theory?
People make decision based on individual: Subjuctive utilities
Coglab Decision Making Design
5 decision‐making problems (Problem 1 – 5)
2 choices for each problem (Choice A & Choice B)
2 versions of each problem (Set 1 & Set 2)
Between‐subjects design (Some participants
saw Set 1, other participants saw Set 2)
What theory does the Coglab on decision making demonstrate? How does it represent this?
the tenants of Prospect Theory (Kahneman &
Tversky, 1984)

For each of 5 problems, there were 2 versions:
–Identical absolute outcomes
–With different framing of the problem and/or options
–Led to very different patterns of choice
What were the findings of the Coglab on decision making.
People use "mental accounting" when making decisions on relative outcomes subjective decision weights.

Relative outcomes $40 for a ticket versus $20 for a ticket & $20 lost
(same outcomes with different framing led to different decisions)

Subjective decision weights
Paying $5 = 100% chance of losing $5
What is Kahneman & Tversky's Prospect Theory?
People make decision based on individual: Subjuctive utilities, Decision weights, Relative outcomes.

People avoid risks (Risk aversion) when they have a change of gaining
– People prefer a sure gain to the chance of a gain
• Risk seeking for losses
– People prefer the chance of a loss to a sure loss
What are Subjective utilities under Prospect theory?
Diminishing marginal utility & Loss aversion
What are the decision Weights under Prospect Theory
Underweight large probabilities & Overweight small probabilities
What are relative outcomes under Prospect Theory?
Gain & loss framing
How do we learn from the consequences of our actions?
We make predictions and compare the actual outcome with the predicted outcome. If our expectations are violated than we may adjust our behavior. For example, I may listen to Justin Bieber because I expect that he is good, but find out that he really bad, so I don't listen to him. ;)
In the (Schultz, Dayan, &
Montague, 1997) experiment on single cell recording on monkeys, what takes place in each condition.
Condition 1:
(Before learning)
Monkey needs to touch a lever
after the appearance of a small
light to receive drops of juice.

Dopamine neurons activated after the delivery of a reward.

Condition 2:
(After several days of training)
After repeated pairing of the visual stimulus with the reward, the animal learns to reach for the lever
as soon as the light is presented.

(Primary stimulus (JUICE) no longer elicits reward, but how the light does)

Condition 3:
(Reward is not delivered)
If the monkey doesn’t receive the
reward in the expected time…

(Dopamine neurons will decrease firing for a short period of time so that their activity is even lower than the baseline.