• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/66

Click to flip

66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
DNA & RNA are both polymers of XXXXXXXXXXX?
Nucleotides
What are the three parts of a nucleotide monomer?
1. Nitrogen base
2. Sugar
3. Phosphate
What are the three kinds of RNA most commonly found in a cell?
1. mRNA
2. tRNA
3. rRNA
What is the term used to define a type of RNA that provides the instructions for assembling amino acids into a polypeptide chain?
mRNA
What is the term used to define a type of RNA that delivers amino acids to a ribosome for their addition into a growing polypeptide chain?
tRNA
What is the term used to define a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes?
rRNA
Why is DNA replication considered semiconservative?
Because DNA replication consists of a single strand of the old template, and a single strand of thew newly replicated DNA.
During DNA replication the enzyme XXXXXXXXX unwinds the DNA helix, forming a Y-Shaped XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXX?
Helicase/Replication Fork
What is the term used to define a group of enzymes that break and rejoin the DNA double helix, allowing the twists to unravel and preventing the formation of knots?
Topoisomerases
During DNA replication what direction does DNA polymerase move?
5' --> 3'
During DNA replication the new compliment strand grows in the what direction?
5' ---> 3'
During DNA replication DNA Polymerase creates short segments of DNA called XXXXXX XXXXXX.
Okazaki segments
What is the term used to define an enzyme that connects DNA molecules?
DNA Ligase
What is the term used to define an enzyme that initiates DNA replication at special nucleotide sequences with short segments of RNA nucleotides?
Primase
What is the term used to define a molecules of RNA that initiates DNA replication?
RNA Primers
What is the term used to define the adding of DNA Nucleotides in the compliment strand?
Elongation
What is the term used to define an enzyme that adds a short sequence of nucleotides to the end of DNA during DNA replication?
Telomerase
What is the term used to define how enzymes and other proteins are made from DNA?
Protein Synthesis
What is the term used to define a triplet group of three adjcacent nucleotides on the mRNA?
Codon
During Translation is the exact base pairing of the third tRNA nucleotide required between the codon and anticodon?
No
In translation the RNA sequence is AUG, what is the tRNA sequence?
UAC
What are the three steps of transcription?
1. Initiation
2. Elongation
3. Termination
What region of DNA often contains a TATA Box?
Promoter
Transcription occurs in what direction?
5' --> 3'
Before an mRNA molecule leaves the nucleus, it undergoes the following alterations, what are those alterations?
1. 5' Cap
2. poly-A Tail
3. RNA Splicing
4. ALternative Splicing
What is the term used to define repeated A nucleotides at the 3' end of mRNA?
poly-A Tail
What is the term used to define a group of nucletides at the 5' end of mRNA that is a guananine nucleotide and two additional phosphate groups?
5' Cap
What is the term used to define when segments of RNA are removed these segments are called introns?
RNA Splicing
What is the term used to define selectively removing different parts of an RNA transcript, to allow different RNA's to be produced.
Alternative splicing
What are the three steps of translation?
1. Initiation
2. Elongation
3. Termination
After a protein is translated, where is it transported to make the final adjustments to make it fully functional? (2)
Enoplasmic Reticulum, or Golgi Body
What is the term used to define any sequence of nucleotides in a DNA molecule that does not exactly match the original DNA molecule from which it was copied?
Mutation
What is the term used to define a single nucleotide error?
Point Mutation
What is the term used to define when the DNA sequence contains an incorrect nucleotide in place of the correct nucleotide?
Substitution
What is the term used to define when a nucleotide is added to the nucleotide sequence?
Insertion
What is the term used to define a mutation that results in an insertion or deletion so nucleotides are displaced by one position?
Frameshift Mutation
What is the term used to define a mutation in which the new codon still codes for the same amino acid?
Silent Mutation
What is the term used to define a mutation in which the new codon codes for a new amino acid?
Missense mutation
What is the term used to define a mutation the occurs when the codon now codes for a stop codon?
Nonsense Mutation
What is the term used to define radiation or chemicals that cause mutations?
Carcinogens
What is the term used to define mutations that activate uncontrolled cell growth?
Carcinogens
What are the three mechanisms to repair replication errors?
1. Proofreading
2. Mismatch Pair
3. Excision Repair
What is the term used to define when DNA polymerase checks to make sure that each newly added nucleotide correctly base pairs with the template strand?
Proofreading
What is the term used to define enzymes that repair errors that escape the proofreading ability of DNA Polymerase?
Mismatch Pair Enzymes
What is the term used to define a enzymes that repair damage by mutagens?
1. Excision repair enzymes
DNA is packaged with proteins to form XXXXXXX. These proteins are called XXXXXXXXX.
Chromatin/Histones
What is the term used to define regions where DNA is loosely bound to nucleosomes and can be actively transcribed?
Euchromatin
What is the term used to define when DNA is tightly bound to nucleosomes and cannot be transcribed?
Heterochromatin
What is the term used to define a type of DNA molecule that can move to different places on a chromosome or a new chromosome?
Transposons
What is the term used to define a virus that only infects bacteria?
Bacteriophages
What structures do viruses consist of? (3)
1. Nucleic Acid
2. Capsid or protein coat
3. Envelope
XXXXXXXXXXXX are ssRNA viruses that use an enzyme called XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX to make a DNA compliment of their RNA.
Retroviruses/reverse transcriptase
What is the term used to define a short circular DNA molecule outside the chromosome?
Plasmid
What is the term used to define a plasmid that can be incorporated into the bacteria chromosome?
Episomes
What is the term used to define a process of DNA exchange between bacteria?
Conjugation
What is the term used to define when new DNA is introduced into the genome of a bacteria by a virus?
Transduction
What is the term used to define when bacteria uptake DNA from their surroundings?
Transformation
What is the term used to define a unit of DNA that controls transcription of a gene?
Operon
What is the term used to define a sequence of DNA to which the RNA Polymerase attaches to begin transcription?
Promoter
What is the term used to define a system that requires a substance to turn on the operon?
Inducible enzymes
What is the term used to define a system in which a substance is required to turn of transcription of a protein?
Repressible enzymes
WHat are the three common mechanisms of gene expression in eukaryotes?
1. Regulatory Protiens
2. Nucleosome Packing
3. RNA Interference
What is the term used to define DNA segements or genes from different sources?
Recombinant DNA
What is the term used to define an enzyme that cuts up DNA?
Restriction Enzymes
Restriction fragements can be seperated by XXX XXXXXX?
Gel Electrophoresis
What is the term used to define amplifying DNA by millions of times?
Polymerase Chain Reaction