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34 Cards in this Set

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What is the term used to define the plasma membrane of a muscle cell?
Sarcolemma
What is the term used to define the cytoplasm of a muscle cell?
Sarcoplasm
What is the term used to define the calcium storage structure of a muscle cell?
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Do skeletal muscle cells have more than one nucleii?
Yes, they are multinucleated
Thin filaments are composed of XXXXXXX.
Actin
Thick filaments are composed of XXXXXXXX.
Myosin
What is the term used to define a repeating unit of overlapping muscle filaments?
Sarcomere
Describe the five steps of muscle contraction.
1. ATP binds to the myosin head and forms ADP + Pi
2. Ca2+ exposes the binding sites on actin filaments. Ca2+ binds to troponin causing tropomyosin to expose positions on the actin filament for attachment of the myosin heads.
3. Cross Bridges between the myosin heads and actin filaments form
4. ADP and Pi are released and the sliding motion of actin results.
5. ATP causes the cross-bridges to unwind
Describe the four steps in muscle contraction:
1. Action potential generates the release of acetylcholine
2. Action Potential is generated on sarcolemma throughout the T-Tubules
3. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum releases Ca2+
4. Myosin Cross-Bridges Form
What are the three kinds of muscle?
1. Skeletal Muscle
2. Smooth Muscle
3. Cardiac Muscle
What is the term used to define a type of muscle that is voluntary that is attached to bones and causes movement of the body.
Skeletal Muscle
What is the term used to define a type of muscle that is involved in involuntary movements that is not striated?
Smooth Muscle
What is the term used to define a type of muscle that is responsible for rythmic contractions of the heart?
Cardiac Muscle
XXXXXXXXX are white blood cells that engulf pathogens by phagocytosis?
Phagocytes
What are two types of Phagocytes?
1. Neutrophils
2. Monocytes
Monocytes enlarge into large phagocytic cells called XXXXXXXXX.
Macrophages
Other white bloods cells called XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXX attack abnormal body cells or pathogen-infected cells?
Natural Killer Cells
What is the term used to define a group of about twenty proteins that help attract phagocytes to foreign cells and help destroy foreign cells by promoting cell lysis?
Complement
What is the term used to define substances secreted by cells invaded by viruses that stimulate neighboring cells to produce proteins that help defend against the viruses?
Interferons
What is the term used to define a series of non-specific events that occur in response to pathogens that include histamine, vasodilation, phagocytes, and complement?
Inflammatory Response
Histamine is secreted by XXXXXXXX, white blood cells found in connective tissue.
Basophils
What is the term used to define increased blood supplies to damaged areas allowing for easier movement for white blood cells in response to histamine release?
Vasodilation
What is the term used to define a mechanism by which the immune system is able to differentiate between self and nonself cells?
Major histocompatibility complex
White blood cells originate in XXXXXX XXXXXX.
Bone Marrow
B cells have antigen receptors on their plasma membrane called XXXXXXXX.
Antibodies
When B cells encounter antigens that specifically bind to their antibodies, the B-cells proliferate producing two types of daughter B cells called:
1. Plasma Cells
2. Memory Cells
What is the term used to define B cells that release their specific antibodies which when circulating through the body binding to antigens?
Plasma Cells
What is the term used to define long-lived B-cells that do not release their antibodies in response to the immediate antigen invasion. Instead they circulate through the body and respond to any susequent invasion?
Memory Cells
XXX XXXXXXX are lymphocytes that originate in the bone marrow, but mature in the thymus gland
T-Cells
What is the term used to define the immune system response that uses mostly T-Cells and responds to any non-self cells, including cells invaded by a pathogen?
Cell-Mediated Response
What is the term used to define most cells and responds to antigens or pathogens that are circulating in the blood or lymph?
Humoral Response
What is the term used to define chemicals derived from bacteria or fungi that are harmful to microorganisms?
Antibiotics
What is the term used to define substances that stimulate the production of memory cells?
Antibiotics
What is the term used to define a type of immunity obtained by transferring antibodies from an individual who previously had a disease to a newly infected individual?
Passive Immunity