Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/75

Click to flip

75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Application of regular grammatical rules to words that are exceptions
Overregulation
( I runned faster than you)
An early vocabulary error in which a word is applied too narrowly, to a smaller number of objects and events than is appropriate.
Underextension
An early vo abulary error in which a word is applied too broadly - that is, to a wider collection of objects and events than is appropriate.
Overextension
The tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect other important features.
Centration
The belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intenetions.
Animistic thinking
The inability to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one's own.
Egocentrism
The understanding that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes.
Conservation
The understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight.
Object permanence
Viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol
Dual representation
Self-directed speech that children use to plan and guide their own behavior.
Private speech
Thinking about thought; awareness of mental activities
Metacognition
A change of quality of social support over the course of a teaching session, in which the adult adjusts the assistance provided to fit the child's current level of performance. As competence increases, the adult gradually and sensitively withdraws support, turning over responsibility to the child.
Scaffolding
The ability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point.
Reversability
The inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point.
Irreversibility
A concept that calls attention to adult and child contributions to a cooperative dialogue without specifying the precise features of communication, thereby allowing for variations across situations and cultures.
Guided participation
Young children's active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences
Emergent literacy
The ability to think about a language as a system
Metalinguistic awareness
The practical, social side of language that is concerned with how to engage in effective and appropriate communication with others
Pragmatics
In Piget's theory, a specific structure, or organized way of making sense of experience, that changes with age
Scheme
In Piaget's theory, a means of building schemes in which infants try to repeat a chance event caused by their own motor activity
Circular reaction
In Piaget's theory, the internal rearrangement and linking together of schemes so that they form a strongly interconnected cognitive system. In information processing, the memory strategy of grouping related items.
Organization
That part of adaptation in which new schemes are created and old ones adjusted to produce a better fit with the enviornment.
Accomodation
In Piaget's theory, the process of building schemes through direct interaction with the environment. Made up of two complimentatry processes: assimilation and accomidation
Adaptation
In information processing, the part of the mental system that contains our permanent knowledge base.
Long-term memory
An approach that regards directly observable events - stimuli and responses - as the appropriate focus of study and views the development of behavior as taking place through classical and operant conditioning
Behaviroism
A form of peer interaction involving friendly chasing, and play fighting that, in our evolutionary past, may have been important for the development of fighting skill.
Rough-and-tumble play
That part of adaptation in which the external world is interpreted in terms of current schemes.
Assimilation
A stable ordering of group members that predicts who will win when conflict arises.
Dominance hierarchy
Spans the first 2 years of life. Infants and toddlers think with their eyes, hands, & ears. Cannot yet carry out many activities inside their heads yet
Sensorimotor stage
Word meanings that help children figure out grammatical rules
Semantics
The most common treatment for ADHD
Stimulant medication
What is the best way to describe death to a child?
Open, honest, and respectful communication about death contributes to sognitive development as well as emotional well-being.
What are the 3 stages of death understanding/
Permanence, universality, nonfunctionality
Once a living thing dies, it cannot be brought back to life
Permanence
All living things eventually die
Universality
All living functions including thought, feeling, movement, and body processes, cease at death.
Nonfunctionality
Provides children w/a year or 2 of preschool along with nutritional and health services. Parental involvement is central to the philosophy
Head Start/ 15,000 centers, 900,000 kids
Teachers provide activities from which children select, and most of the day is devoted to play
Child centered pre-school
Teachers structure children's learning, teaching letters, numbers, colors, learning, and other academic skills through formal lessons, often using repitition and drills
Academic centered preschool
Name the 3 types of preschool
Open, academic and child cenetered
In Piagetian classroom, children are encouraged to discover for themselves through spontaneous interaction with the enviornment. Teachers provide activities designed to promote exploration amd discovery
Discovery learning
A set of capacitites for dealing with people and understanding oneself
Emotional intelligence
The fact that few of us can retrieve the events that happened to us before age 3.
Infantile Amnesia
Inadequate discomfort
Disequilibrium
Implies a steady, comfortable condition
Equilibrium
What are the 3 parts of the information processing system?
A working, or short term memory, Long term memory, and a sensory register.
Where we actively "work" on a limited amount of information, applying mental strategies
Working, or short-term memory
Our permanent knowledge base
Long-term memory
Sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly
Sensory register
Bad nutrition / marasmus and kwashioker are caused by it
Malnutrition
Male sex hormones- occur in boys and girls, affects the brain organization and behavior
Androgens
The most common vision problem in middle childhood
Myopia (nearsightedness)
The best treatment for childhood obesity
A family based intervention, focusing on changing behaviors
Most frequent cause of middle childhood abseceses
illness
Pliable and elastic
Flexibility
Improves running
Balance
Quicker, more accurate movements
Agility
Throwing and kicking harder
Force
Children may adopt teacher's positive or negative views
Self-fufilling prophacy
Name the accomplishments of Piaget's Concrete operations stage
Conservation, classifacation, seration, and spatial reasoning
Provides clear evidence of operations
Conservation
Ages 7-10 are mroe aware of relations between a general catagory and 2 specific catagories at the same time.
Classifacations
The ability to order items along a quantitative dimension (ex: legnth and weight)
Seration
Directions/maps
Spatial reasoning
Enhances a child's understanding that one object can stand for another
Symbolic representation
Interference observed when memory for earlier-observed materials is disrupted by later-learned materials.
Retroactive inference
All babies have a LAD, whcih help them acquire language during their sensitive period
language acquisition
a United States federal law, meant to ensure "a free appropriate public education" for students with disabilities, designed to their individualized needs in the Least Restrictive Environment. The act requires that public schools provide necessary learning aids, testing modifications and other educational accommodations to children with disabilities. The act also establishes due process in providing these accommodations. Children whose learning is hampered by disabilities not interfering with his/her ability to function in a general classroom, may qualify for similar accommodations under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 or the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
Individuals with disabilities education act
Definies intelligence in terms of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide range of culturally valued activities. Dismissing the idea of general intellegence,at least 8 independent intellegences were proposed.
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (helps to nurture special talents)
Name the 8 mulitple intelligences
Linguistic, logico-mathmatical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, naturalist, interpersonal, intrapersonal
What are the 3 landmarks of Piaget's sensorimotor period?
Repeating chance behaviors, intentional behavior, and mental representation
Recent research on Piaget's infant cog. dev.
Violation-of-expectation method, object permanence, searching for multiple hidden objects, and deferred imitation and problem solving.
Name the 4 stages of Piaget's cognitive dev. theory
Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
The values, beliefs, customs, and skills of a social group os transmitted to the next generation. Social interaction and cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable memebers of society is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture
Vygotsky's sociocultural theory
Growth during middle childhood
2 to 3 inches in height, 5 pounds of weight ea.year