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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Moro Reflex
onset: 28 wks GA
integ: 5 mos
"startle reaction"
Normal: integ coincides w/ head control and PFE
Abnormal: interferes w/mvmt; ability to maintain quiet and focus
onset: 2 mos
integ: 3.5 mos
norm:role in hand eye coord, starts R/L dissociation
ab:prevents rolling, hand to mouth & midline
onset: 5.5 mos
integ: 6.5 mos
neck FL = UE FL = LE EXT
neck EXT = UE EXT = LE FL
norm: break up EXT pattern, aids assuming quad
ab: bunny hopping and lack of R/L dissociation
onset: birth
integ: 1 mos
supine = inc EXT tone; prone = inc FL tone
norm: infant overcomes reflex and gravity
ab: MOST DETRIMENTAL=> compromises infant's ability to move AG
Positive Support Rxn
onset: 35 wks GA
integ: 1-2 mos
S&R: baby lowered onto feet stimulates LE muscle contraction
Automatic Stepping
onset: 27 wks GA
integ: 1 mos
S&R: infant vertical w/ fwd tip will cause alternating reciprocal LE mvmt
norm: early neural circuits for locomotion, helps position fetus in utero
ab: persistence prevents fxnal locomotion
Flexor Withdrawal
onset: 28 wks
integ: 4 mos
S&R: noxious stimulus to foot sole causes leg withdrawal
ab: dec threshold it may occur w/ non-noxious stim and prevent normal mvmt
Crossed Extension
onset: 28 wks GA
integ: 4 mos
S&R: examiner holds leg and pokes foot, infant withdraws ipsi LE, EXT contra LE to push examiner's hand away
Plantar Grasp Reflex
onset: 3 mos
integ: 8 mos
S&R: pressure against sole of foot causes toe FL
ab: integration is required to allow normal gait and equi rxns of ankle DF and toe EXT
Labyrinthine Righting
onset: birth
integ: persist thru life
S&R: blindfold child, suspend and tilt body
norm: head will align to vertical position
ab: necessary for head control as child moves in space
Neonatal Neck Righting
onset: 34 wks GA
integ: 5 mos
S&R: turn head, body follows as a whole
=>needed for infant to roll supine to SL
Neck Righting
onset: 4-6 mos
integ: 5 yrs
S&R: turn head, shldrs follow, then pelvis w/ trunk
=> important for developing rotation about the body
Body Righting
onset: 6 mos
integ: perists thru life
S&R: flex LE and rot across body, segmental roll to prone
=> allows segmental roll and higher developmental positions
Protective Forward Extension
onset: 6 mos
integ: persists
S&R: child supported vertically and plunged twd table, child will EXT head, EXT/ABD UEs,
=>needed for sitting w/ UE support and quad
Protective Lateral Extension
onset: 8 mos
integ: persists
S&R: child displaced to side while sitting w/ LE in front, UE ABD w/ E/W/finger EXT on falling side
=>needed for sitting with and without hand support
Protective Backward Extension
onset: 10 mos
integ: persists
S&R: child displaced bkwd while sitting w/ LE in front, child will reach back w/ UEs or rotate and reach 1 UE back
=> needed for good sitting balance and trunk rotation
Avg Time Frames for Development of Equilibrium Rxns
Prone: 6 mos
Supine: 7 mos
Sitting: 8 mos
Quad: 9 mos
Stand: 12 mos
Staggering Reaction
onset: 15-18 mos
integ: persists
S&R: COG displaced beyond equil rxn ability to prevent a fall, step or steps taken to prevent fall
=>protects upright posture, needed for safe ambulation
Factors that Influence Gross Motor Development
CNS Maturation
Environment and Handling
Four Stages of Normal Antigravity Posture and Movement
controlled mobility
Mobility Stage of Development
-ability to move and assume desired position
-depends on reciprocal innervation
-more superficial & distal muscles primary mobilizers
Stability Stage of Development
-ability to maintain posture once it has been assumed
-patterns of coinnervation resulting in cocontraction of agonist/antagonist to stabilize joint
-cocontraction is dynamic
-deeper more proximal muscles are stabilizers
3 Stages of Stability Development
-structural = tissue tightness
-positional = use body to create large BOS
-internal = requires use of righting, equilibrium, and protective extension
Controlled Mobility Stage of Development
integration of mobility and stability so child can assume & maintain posture while maintaining desired spatial orientation of head
Skill Stage of Development
-combination of previous 3 stages to allow for efficient performance of activity
-UE = manipulation of objects
-LE = locomotion
Advanced Ambulation: 15 Mos
continue to creep up stairs, continuation of 12 months
Advanced Ambulation: 18 Mos
creeps bkwd down stairs
walks up stairs w/ 1 UE support step-to pattern
Advanced Ambulation: 21 Mos
Walks down stairs w/ 1 UE support
Advanced Ambulation: 2 Yrs
begin reciprocal arm;
inc speed;
begin heelstrike; runs;
jump off bottom step;
up/down stairs alone w/step-to
Advanced Ambulation: 2.5 Yrs
two foot jump;
tries 1 LE stand
Advanced Ambulation: 3 Yrs
jumps and runs;
alternate step up stairs no UE support;
ONSET OF ADULT GAIT; rides trike
Advanced Ambulation: 4-7 Yrs
alternates feet going down stairs, no support
Advanced Ambulation: 7 Yrs
Mature gait
5 Major Attributes of Normal Gait
-stability in stance
-sufficient foot clearance
-initial contact pre-positioning
-adequate step-length
-energy conservation
Determinants of Mature Gait
-duration of SLS
-walking velocity
-ratio of pelvic span to ankle spread
Standing Balance: Static
15-24 mos = momentary
24 mos = 1 sec
5-6 yrs = 10 seconds hands on hips
Standing Balance: Dynamic
18-24 mos = walk in a line
4 yrs = tandem walk
5-6 yrs = tandem walk on line, hands on hips
assessed by balance beam walking
requires greater strength and balance than jumping
3.5-4 yrs = hop in place
4-5 yrs = hop either leg
6 yrs = hop along line
MOST difficult motor skill b/c of planning
3-4 yrs = gallop
4-5 yrs = one leg skips other steps
5-6 yrs = true skip
Ball Skills: 3 yrs
-total arm fling
-perp stance
-stationery legs
-push throw w/ mostly elbow ext
Ball Skills: 4 yrs
-preparatory arm swing
-trunk rot
-fwd wt shift
Ball Skills: 5 yrs
-mature throwing
Requirements of Ambulation
-postural control = wt shift, righting and equilibrium
-appropriate ROM
-jt stability
-muscle coordination
-strength, endurance, change in energy levels