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277 Cards in this Set

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What is an EMOTION?
A moticvational construct that is characterized by changes in affect (feelings), physiological responses, cognitions, and overt behavior
Discrete Emotions Theory
* A theory of emotions that says that specific emotions (discrete) are biologically programmed, accompanied by distinct sets of bodily and facial cues and discriminable from early in life

* strong evolutionary undertones tracing back to Darwin
Functionalist Approach to Emotions
* A theory of emotions saying that the major purpose of an emotion is to establish, maintain, or change one's relationship with the environment to accomplish a goal;
* emotions are not seen as discrete early in life but rather as entities that emerge with age
* says infants emotions consist mainly of global experieces of positivity (excitement) and distress)

* this theory also says that successful adaptation also means that the child must learn to control their emotions to maintain social harmony and achieve important goals
Displaying Emotions
(Izard): Most researches agree that babies communicate feelings through facial and vocal expressions, and that each expression becomes a more recognizable sign of a particular emotion with age
* Positive emotions easier to identify than negative ones
Sequencing of Discrete Emotions
*Birth: babies show facial expressions of interest, disgust, distress, and contentment
2-7months: PRIMARY EMOTIONS continue to emerge and now include anger, sadness, surprise, fear, and joy; may have deep biological roots and are universal
*2-3 years: SECONDARY EMOTIONS appear
the set of emotions present at birth or emerging early in the first year that some theorists believe to be biologically programmed
Development of Positive Emotions
* first signs of happiness are the rudimentary smiles infants show in response to a full stomach, etc. (usually a response to biological state)
* 6-10 weeks: babies begin to show SOCIAL SMILES which become more frequent over time
*2 months: infants smile to indicate their pleasure in exerting control over toys or other events (at 3 mo., babies are more likely to smile at people that at puppets)
* 6-7 months: they are reserving their biggest smiles for familiar companions
Smiles directed at people; first appears at 6-10 weeks of age
Development of Negative Emotions
* 2 months: anger and sadness(as distinguished from generalized distress) first appear and become more recognizable over the first year

* 6-7months: Fear normally appears with two particular fears emerging, STRANGER ANXIETY and SEPARATION ANXIETY
* a wary or fretful reaction that infants and toddlers often display when approached by an unfamiliar person
* Most infants react positively to strangers until their first emotional attachment, and then become aprehensive shortly thereafter
*peaks at 8-10 mo. and declines over the 2nd year
* A wary or fretful reaction than infants and toddlers often display when separated from people that they are attached to
* normally appears at 6-8 mo; peaks at 14-18 mo., and declines through preschool
Where might stranger anxiety and separtation anxiety come from?
* Evolutionary theorists: from an infant's general apprehension of the unfamiliar
* Cognitive-developmental: inability to explain who a stranger may be or what has become of a familiar companion
Development of Self-Conscious Emotions (basic explanation)
* Self-conscious emotions, or SECONDARY EMOTIONS, emerge at age 2-3
* after children have reached such cognitive milestones as self-recognition
* and have acquired standards for evaluation of their conduct
*Self-conscious or self-evaluative emotions that emerge in the 2-3rd yr. and deprend, in part, on cognitive development
* includes embarrassment, shame, guilt, pride, and envy
* not culturally universal
Development of Secondary Emotions Across childhood and into adulthood
*Preschoolers: begin to understand thier own and others' emotions; starting to understand social importance of emotions

* Middle Childhood: EMOTIONAL DISPLAY RULES; capable of empathy; learn how to hide emotions; more reflective and strategic about emotions (uses of distraction)

* Adolescence: return of emotional swings from infancy; affected much more by emotions; sensitive to the psychological bases of emotions in others (songs, poetry)

*Adulthood: able to create emotionally satisfying personal lifestyle; integrate emotional experiences into daily life and relationships; expected to be skillful at expression of emotions
Specifics with Secondary Emotions
* By age 3, children are better able to evaluate their performances as good or bad
* pride: "I did it!"
* shame: downward gaze, "I'm not good at this"
*evaluative embarrassment: preschool children may show this, it comes from a negative evaluation of one's performance when they fail to meet a standard and is much more negative than reg. embarrassment
guilt: fail to live up to expectations of others; kids will focus on interpersonal consequences of wrong doing
shame: more self-focused than based on concern for others
Parental Influence of Self-Conscious Emotions
* Parents clearly influence a child's susceptibility to particular self-conscious emotions
* Children display more pride over successes or shame over failures if their mothers reactions to the outcomes were positive or negative
*Hoh parents react to rule breaking determines if kids will feel more guilty or shameful - if parents belittle the child, she will feel shame; if they criticize the appropriate behavior, the child will feel guilty
* initially, kids are more likely to show self-evaluative emotions if an adult is present (until well into elementary school years sometimes)
Infant's identifying and understanding others' emotions
* infants respond to certain voice signals at birth or soon after; respond to another infant's cry by crying
* The infant's ability to discriminate facial displays of emotion and to derive info from them improves dramatically over the first year
* By 7-10mo, infants are capable of social referencing, which enables them to assess how they ought to be feeling or behaving in a variety of uncertain situations
* vocal expressions of emotion seem to convey as much if not more info to a 12 month old as facial expressions
the use of others' emotional expressions to gain information or infer the meaning of an otherwise ambiguous situation
* children quickly acquire knowledge this way and help them to understand the world they live in
Age 3-5 identifying and inderstanding others' emotions
*Before age 3, kids are really bad at labeling emotional expressions of people, probably because they do not have the language to do so
*They can however draw some appropriate behavioral inferences from others' expressions - (woman showing disgust when eating crackers, they know she would prefer the carrots)
*Between age 3-5, children become better and better at using facial cues and even expressive bodily movements to identify the primary emotions that others are experiencing.
Understanding Causes of Emotions
*Children gradually become better at identifying the causes of particular emotions and the situations or events that evoke them.
*2-3: kids understand that emotion is associated with the fulfillment of desires
*4-5 yrs: quite aware that a current emotion may be caused by thinking of past events; they conceive of emotional processes such as how specific emotions are related to antecedent causes and how personal background, experiences, and personality can yield unique emotional reactions;
* mid childhood: they can predict how others may act b/c they know how others tent to react in certain situations
*9-10yrs: they become increasingly aware that different people may experience different emotions about the same event and that a person can experience 2 or more emotions at once
* notice that many later advances emerge at about the same time as the stage that children can integrate multiple pieces of info in Piagetian conservation tasks, and depend in part, on cognitive development
Family Conversations
*Through conversations, adults clarify and also socialize emotional knowledge, conveying expectations about appropriate emotional behavior and the cause and consequences of emotional displays
*this helps kids understand and interpret others' emotions
*this is needed for the development of empathy
*should be constant, well before kindergarten age
*The process of adjusting one's emotions to appropriate levels of intensity in order to accomplish one's goals
*appropriate regulation involves the abilities to manage our feelings, physiological responses associated with these feelings, emotion-related cognitions, and emotion-related behavior
*culturally defines rules specifying which emotions should or should not be expressed under which circumstances
*involves supressiong and replacing emotional displays
*girls are better at this than boys
*collectivist societies show stronger adherance to rules earlier than individualistic societies
*many cultural differences in what is thought to be appropriate and inappropriate displays of emotion
Learning to regulate emotions: infants - toddlers
*infants: caregivers control babies' emotional arousal at first by controlling their exposure to events and by pacifying them when they are upset
*6mo: Infants will turn away from unpleasant stimuli or suck thumb or pacifier; girls are better at this than boy infants
* toddlers: more likely to try and control the actions of people or objects that upset them (throw a toy or food they don't want
Learning to regulate emotions: preschoolers
* conversations about emotions really help them develop cognitive strategies for dealing with emotions
*(Thompson): distraction skills such as looking away from scary things; thinking of happy things when they are scared
*they tend to cope by making things rosier than they really are; they reinterpret causes of distress, and think happy thoughts to help them overcome the upsetting ones
*to adapt, they also must maintain or intensify feelings sometimes; like conveying anger when standing up to a bully, continuing negative arousal after breaking a rule so kids can sympathize w/ the victim and feel guilty and be less likely to repeat it, or to feel pride after accomplishments
Learning to regulate emotions: School Age children
* redirect attention (think of a happy day)
* reconceptualize situations
* deliberate cognitive strategies to manage feelings
Learning to regulate emotions: Adolescents
* personally effective means of regulating emotions such as seeking people out, music, etc.
Learning to regulate emotions: adults
*change life circumstances, such as schedules, relationships, resposibilities, to meet emotional demands
The ability to achieve personal goals in social interactions while maintaining positive relationships with others
*abilities to display predominantly positive (rather than negative) emotions, to correctly identify others' emotions and respond appropriately to them, and to adjust to one's own emotions to appropriate levels of intesnsity in order to achieve one's goals
*each of those components is related to a child's social competence
*children who are not good at this are generally disliked by peers and more likely to have adjustment problems throughout their development
*A person's characteristic modes of emotional and behavioral responding to environmental events, including such attributes as activity level, irritability, fearful distress, and positive affect
*an individual's tendency to respond in predictable ways to environmental events
*(Thompson): "constitutionally based individual differences in behavioral characteristics that are relatively consistent across situations over time
Temperment is what?
* Fearfulness (Fearful Distress)
*Irritability: fussiness, cryng, distress when frustrated
*Sociability (Positive Affect): freq. of smiling, willingness to approach others, laughing
*Activity Level: amount of gross motor activity
*Attention span. Persistence: length of time a child orients on an object of interest
* Rhythmicity: predictibility of bodily functions such as eating, sleeping, and bowel movements
Influences on Temperment
*the term implies a biological foundation for differences in behavior - a foundation that is genetically influenced and stable over time
*Environment also influences a child's temperment
*Temperment comes from a genetic predisposition that is mediated by maturation and experience ... biological factor does not directly reslut in anything without environmental influence
*Shared environmental influences have a larger impact on positve tempermental attributes and nonshared environmental influences have a larger impact on negative aspects of temperment
Stability of Temperment
* relatively consistent over time; not necessarily rigidly stable, but characteristics should show greater consistency than other behavioral attributes
*Difficult to study because it has to be inferred from behavior
* Several components of temperment seem to forcast later variations in adult personalities
*stability is greatest for individuals at extremes of a tempermental dimension
* Measures of temperment obtained in early months of life are only weakly or inconsistently associated with later assessments of the same temperment dimensions: TEMPERMENTS CAN CHANGE
*Increasing evidence for longer term associations between temperment and later behavior after the 2nd year of life; Caspi and Silva found that temperment assessed at age 3 is predictive when tested again at ages 15 and 18
* a tempermental attribute reflection the fearful distress children display and their tendencies to withdrawal from unfamiliar people or situations
*one component of temperment that seems to predict future adult personality trait
*(40%): tempermental profile in which the child quickly establishes regular routines, is generally good natured, and adapts easily to novelty
*(10%)tempermental profile in which the child is irregular in daily routines and adapts slowly to new experiences, often responding negatively and INTENSELY
* later in life: may have trouble adjusting to school activities and a variety of other settings later in life, be irritable or aggressive with siblings and peers, increased rates of internalizing and externalizing difficulties
*tempermental profile in which the child is inactive and moody and displays mild passive resistance to new routines and experiences
* later in life: may be neglected or ignored by peers because they do not seek out new things or situations and they get left alone
*Thomas and Chess's notion that development is likely to be optimized when parents' child rearing practices are sensitively adapted to their child's tempermental characteristics
*an environmental factor than influences and may change temperment
*Best to be sensitive, patient caregivers to affect positive change in temperment
Influences of the child's temperment on other things
* A child's tempermental profile may influence how a child interacts with people and settings; happy baby - people come and play/smile; crying baby - people ignore it or react negatively
* A child's tempermental profile may influence how the child percieves, experiences, interprets, and thinks about life events; a shy child may not choose to go to karate, whick limits opportunities for development
Cultural Differences in Temperment
*culture dictates "desirable" temperment
*US consider shyness a social disadvantage while in Asia, shyness means socially mature
What are Emotional Attachments?
***Bowlby: defines attachment as the strong emotional ties that we feel for the special people in our lives
*people who are securly attached take pleasure in their interactions and feel comforted by their partner's presence in times of stress and uncertainty
*Reciprocal relationships
*a close emotional relationship between two people, characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity
*a newborn infant from birth to about 1 month of age
*term used to describe the strong affectional ties that parents may feel toward a neonate
Thoughts on early emotional bonding
*OLD belief: sensitive or critical period @ time immediately after birth
*NEW belief: attachments form slower over several months
*early contact is still very important for young, low SES mothers
*the likelihood that a mother and her infant will become securely attached is just as high (or higher) in adoptive families than in nonadoptive ones
another factor of attachment is SYNCHRONIZED ROUTINES
* generally harmonious interactions between 2 people in which participants adjust their behavior in response to the partner's actions and emotions
*face to face play; mothers who display still face will cause distress in infant due to lack of responsiveness
The Growth of Primary Attachments (Schaffer and Emerson)
*a child is judged to be attached to someone if separation from that person reliably elicits a protest
*Asocial Phase
*Phase of Indiscriminate Attachments
*Specific Attachment Phase
*Phase of Multiple Attachments
* approximately the first 6 weeks of life, in which infants respond in an equally favorable way to interesting social and nonsocial stimuli; meeting their needs is important
* period between 6 weeks and 6-7months in which infants prefer social to nonsocial stimulation and are likely to protest whenever any adult puts them down or leaves them alone; they enjoy human company, but it doesn't matter who it is
*period between 7-9 months when infants are attached to one close companion (usually the mother)
*protests separation
*wants mom
*wary of strangers
*the formation of a secure attachment is also important because the attachment object serves as a SECURE BASE for exploration, a point of safety from which an infant can feel free to venture awat
*period when infants are forming attachments to companions other than their primary attachment object; within weeks of forming initial attachment
*2 or more attachments by 18 months
Assessing Attachment Security: Mary Ainsworth's STRANGE SITUATION procedure
*a series of 8 separation and reunion episodes to which infants are exposed in order to determine the quality of their attachments
*observer can usually characterize attachment in one of four ways
* (65%)an infant/caregiver bond in which the child welcomes contact with a close companion and uses this person as a secure base from which to explore the environment
*may be visibly upset by separations, often greets mother upon return, and seeks physical contact w/ mom to alieviate distress if it is present
*(10%)an insecure infant/caregiver bond, characterized by stong separation protest and a tendency of the child to remain near but resist contact initiated by the caregiver, particularly after separation
* child stays close to mom, explores very little when she is present, very distressed upon separation, ambivalent upon return, wary of strangers even when mom is present (b/c momm is not a secure base for them.
*inconsistent caregivers, often unresponsive (change diaper but doesn't look at child for ex), meet kid's basic needs but reactions differ, infant tries to get the response and is resentful when he doesn't
* (20%)an insecure infant/caregiver bond, characterized by little separation protest and a tendency of the child to avoid or ignore the caregiver
* little distress when separated; avoids or ignores mom even when she tries to gain his attention; rather sociable with strangers, but may avoid or ignore them as well
* kid is used to REJECTING PATTERN: impatient unresponsive caregiver, negative feelings about the child, doesn't want to be with child,infant learns that adult does not want them around OR
OVERZEALOUS PATTERN: high stimulation regardless of child's needs
*(5-10%)an insecure infant/ caregiver bond, characterized by the infant's dazed appearance on reunion or a tendency to first seek and then abruptly avoid the caregiver
*combo of resistant and avoidant patterns that reflects condusion about whether to approach or avoid caregiver; child may act dazed or freeze on approach and then abruptly move away as mother draws near; may be the most insecure attachment
* usually due to neglect or physical abuse; severly depressed moms who occassionally mistreat or neglect their babies
Who displays insensitive parenting that contributes to insecure attachments?
*Clinically depressed moms; moms who felt unloved, neglected, or abused as children, unplanned pregnancies, povery stricken families who are experiencing legal or financial probs or inadequate healthcare, moms in unhappy marriages
Other Measures of Assessing Attachment Quality
*Attachment Q-Set(AQS): at home, ages 1-5, same scoring as strange situation
*Adult Attachment Interview: clinical interview with adolescents and adults to tap respondents' memories of their childhood relationships with parents to assess the character of their attachment representations
What are the factors that influence attachment security?
*1: Quality of Caregiving: CAREGIVER HYPOTHESIS: quality of attachment to one's mom depends on the kind of caregiving received from her (as explained already on specific attachment cards)
*2. Infant Characteristics: Temperment does NOT play a role if healthy attachment is formed; Temperment DOES play a role in the type of unhealthy attachement experienced (think goodness of fit)
*caregiver capacity to understand an infant's motives, emotions, and behaviors and to take them into account when responding to the infant; thought to be an important contributor to sensitive caregiving
Aspects of caregiving that promote secure mother-infant attachments
*positive attitude
Kagen's view that the strange situation measures individual differences in infant's temperments rather than the quality of their attachments
*it implies that infants, not caregivers, are the primary architects of their attachment classifications
*this hypothesis is seen as too far to the extreme
Cultural Variations in Attachment
*distribution of attachment classifications varies across cultures and often reflects cultural differences in child rearing
*Still, parents around the world prefer that their infants form secure attachments, and more infants around the world form secure attachments than any other pattern
Japanese term; refers to an infant's feeling of total dependence on her mother and presumption of the mother's love and indulgence
Psychoanalytic Theory
*Freud emphasized feeding because the infant was in the "oral stage" and the mother would become the primary object of fixation
*Erickson also emphasized feeding but claimed that mother's OVERALL RESPONSIVENESS to all her child's needs was more important than feeding alone (trust vs. mistrust)
Learning Theory
*also emphasized feeding saying that it should elicit positive responses from the contented child and it is often an occassion when mothers can provide infants with many comforts including warmth, food, etc. all in one sitting - once the mother has attained this status as a SECONDARY REINFORCER, the infant will be attached
Harlow and Zimmerman's classic study
*monkeys separated from moms at birth for first 165 days of life
*half fed by cloth monkeys and the other half fed by wire monkeys
*no metter who fed them, they spent most of their time with the cloth monkey mom except when eating
*contact comfort more important than feeding
Schaffer and Emerson's study
*feeding practices did not predict attachment
*mom's responsiveness and total of stimulation provided predicted attachment
Cognitive-Developmental Theory
*level of attachment depends on cognitive development
* before an infant can form a secure attachment, she must be able to recognize OBJECT PERMANENCE and discriminate familiar companions from strangers
*(7-9 months - Piaget's 4th sensorimotor stage)
Ethological Theory
*Lorenz: imprinting in young goslings; attachment is an adaptive, inborn response
*In humans, infants have inherited a number of attributes that help them to maintain contact with others and elicit caregiving (thereby survival)(Lorenx, Alley, and Bowlby)
*These include (1)attractiveness to infants; (2) inborn reflexive responses (sucking and grasping reflexes; (3) adults are preprogrammed to respond favorable to a baby's signals
Fathers as Attachment Objects
*infants often form attachments to their fathers soon after they become attached to their moms
*sensitivity of paternal caregiving promotes secure attachments, whereas insesnsitivity is lilely to foster insecure attachments.
*Fathers often assume the role of playmates, although they are or can be quite proficient at all aspects of caregiving
*A secure attachment to the dad contributes in many ways to a child's social and emotional development and may help to compensate for potentially harmful effects of an insecure mother-child attachment relationship
Is there a relationship between attachment quality and later development?
*Research says YES
*Infants who form secure attachments are likely to display more favorable developmental outcomes such as being more creative in symbolic play and more attractive playmates
*Waters(1979): observed quality attachments at 15mo. and the same kids at 3.5yrs: securely attached kids had better social skills, were sensitive, social leaders, innitiated play, popular; insecurely attached kids were insecure, withdrawn, less interested in learning, didn't innitiate play
*cognitive representations of self, others, and relationships that infants construct from their interactions with caregivers
Why might attachment quality forcast later outcomes?
Bowlby: infants develop internam working models that are used to interpret events and to form expectations about the character of human relationships
*sensitive responsive caregiving leads to positive working model or others while neglectful or abusive caregiving leads to a negative working model of others; these models influence their reactions to people and challenges for years to come
*Parents' working models correspond closely with thier children's; thus attachment representations are often passed from generation to generation
*however, kids working models can change, s that a secure attachment history is no guarantee of + adjustment later in life nor are insecure attachments a certain indication of poor life outcomes
What happens with social deprivation? Harlow study
*Harlow's socially deprived monkeys removed from isolation after:
*3mo: fighting - recovered w/ daily interaction w/ age mates and normal play
*6mo: very little social responsiveness, prefer playing alone, if w/ other monkeys, accept aggressive play w/ retaliation, bizarre sexual behavior
12mo: withdrawn, apathetic, had to be separated from peers b/c they would be abused or killed
*isolates usually recovered with younger peer therapy
Social Deprivation in Humans
*Institutionalized Infants: appear normal at 3-6mo; after 6mo, don't cry, coo, or babble, disinterested in social contact, don't accomodate to caregiver handling
*Goldfarb: compared children left in orphanages for 1 or 3 yrs and looked at them at ages 3,6,8,and 12; found that children who spent first 3 years in orphanages lagged behind in virtually all aread of development
*Failure to thrive and deprivation: growth difficulties from psychological deprivation or neglect
*recovery is better for children when deprivation is under 2 years, there is no physical abuse, and they are placed w/ highly educated, affluent parents
Attachment Related Fears of Infancy
*Stranger Anxiety
*Separation Anxiety (not cross cultural finding)
*Reactive Attachment Disorder
Reactive Attachment Disorder
*essential feature is markedly disturbed social relatedness
*may be one of two types:
*INHIBITED TYPE: fail to initiate and respond to most social interactions (may appear autistic)
*DISINHIBITED TYPE: display indiscriminate sociability or lack of selectivity in the choice of attachment figures (seen especially in abuse and neglect populations
*DSM stated that for either of these, they must be seen with "grossly pathological care" meaning a persistent disregard for basic emotional needs for comfort, stimulation, and affection
*the notion that socially deprived infants develop abnormally because they have failed to establish attachments to a primary caregiver
*may not be true since infants cared for by several people do not show deficits
*the notion that socially deprived infants develop abnormally because they have had little contact with companions who respond contigently to their social overtures
*more likely the correct hypothesis
*the failure to learn how to respond appropriately in a situation because of previous exposures to uncontrollable events in the same or familiar situations
*stop trying to elicit responses from other people
What is the SELF?
*the development of self is a multi-faceted process that extends throughout life
*the combonation of physical and psychological attributes that is unique to each individual
*the idea that a child's self-concept is largely determined by the ways other people respond to him or her
*the thinking that people display about the thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviors of of themselves and other people
Subjective Self-Awareness
*That which you know about yourself
*develops very early in life - knowing where your body stops and others' start
*provides a foundation for the growth of self
*who you think you are
*physical self-recognition (Brooks-Gunn)self rouge test
*categorical labels: "I'm 5";"I'm a girl."
*characterological qualities: shy, friendly
*understanding how self-relevant processes function: Meta awareness in 4 ways: 1:compare oneself to others 2:applying social schemas - "I'm a girl, I act like a girl"
3:ingroup/outgroup differentiations - "I'm a girl, I play with girl's"
4: creating a self concept
Autobiographical Personal Narrative
*Means through which recollections of specific events in your past are integrated b/c of their personal meaning and relation to the self
*doesn't emerge until after age 3; requires self knowledge; initially structured by parent
*autobiographical memory vs. recall of general events - SELF is central
*often derive from the internalization of others' evaluations as well as personal self regard
*guide how your characteristics come to be considered strengths or weaknesses
*rudimentary ways of perceiving the self as good or bas likely develop in nonlinguistic ways prior to age 2, but these self-evaluations become much more multifaceted and differentiated in later years
*The self primarily regarded in a social context
*even basic sense of self (self-recognition) doesn't develop if a person is isolated
Self through development
*although some sense of self exists from very early in the first year, the sense of self is QUALITATIVELY different in infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, and older adulthood b/c of the changes in self-representation, autobiographical personal narrative, and self-evaluative processes that occur over time
*age 2, concerned about his/her behavior is perceived by caregiver
*one's perceptions of one's unique combination of attributes
Self-concept: emerging self
*Most developmentalists believe that babies are born w/out a self-concelt and will gradually differentiate themselves from the external environment over the 1st 2-6 months as they gain a sense of PERSONAL AGENCY and learn (through their experiences in front of mirrors) to discriminate their faces from those of other people
*the recognition that one can be the cause of an event or events
* the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror or photograph, coupled with the conscious awareness that the mirror or photographic image is a representation of "me"
*Lewis and Brooks-Gunn: rouge test: most 18-24 mo. can recognize themselves
*early self-representation in which 2-3 yr. olds recognize current representations of self but are largely unaware that past self-representations or self-relevant events have applications for the futire
*not yet aware that the self is stable over time
* more mature self-representation, emerging between 3.5 and 5 yrs, in which children are able to integrate past, present, and unknown future self-representations into a notion of a self that endures over time
Cognitive and Social COntributors to Self-Recognition
*cognitive development is necessary: age 18-24 months is the precise age that toddlers are said to internalize their sensorimotor schemas to construct mental representations - one of which may be a clear image of their own bodies and faces
*social experiences are equally important
*secure attachment to caregiver
*Gallup: found that chimps can recognixe themselves unless brought up in isolation, then they can't, and they see the chimp in the mirror as another monkey
*Parents provide descriptive info, evaluate child's behavior, talk about noteworthy events - these help children to organize their experiences and recall them with personal significance
*a person's classification of the self along socially significant dimensions such as age and sex
*begins in toddlerhood
Self Concept in Preschoolers
*define self by physical attributes, preferences, possessions, or actions of which they felt proud
*can characterize self on psychological dimensions IF given contrasting choices
*characterize others in similar, concrete, observable dimensions
*generally see themselves in positive terms
Self Concept in Middle Childhood
*shift from defining oneslef in external, physical, behavioral terms to internal characteristics
*use of social comparisons happens spontaneously and is fostered by intellectual develoment as well as performance based evaluationswhich become part of the daily life of children
*more psychological labels used to describe self
*apply labels in absolute ways
*6-8 yr. olds use social comparisons to describe others (Mary climbs faster than John)
*9+ yr. olds: rely more on psychological constructs to describe others (Mary is a good climber); still use physical traits too
Around 11.5: self-description changes - traits, not as positive, will match others' appraisal of her, a more complex understanding
*concerned about peer relationships
*in adolescent self-concept
*adolescents that are most upset over inconsistencies in their self-portrayals are those who put on false fronts, acting out of character in an attempt to improve their images or win over parents or peers; the ones who most often show false self-behaviors are the ones who feel least confident that they know who they truly are
*acting in ways that do not reflect one's true self or the "true me"
Self Concept in Adolescence
*15 yr olds:aware that they are not the same person in all situations; are confused by the inconsistencies
*older adolescents: integrate inconsistencies into a more coherent view of themselves
*when describing others, recognize that situational factors can cause a person to act "out of character"; involves making psychological comparisons
Self Concept in Post Adolescence and Adulthood
Post-Adolescents: characteristics
Adulthood: more by roles
*an understanding that people are cognitive beings with mental states that are not always accessible to others and that often guide their behavior
Those inner, or subjective, aspects of self that are known only to the individual and are not available for public scrutiny
Those aspects of self that others can see or infer
Early Understanding of Mental States
*2mo: already more likely to repeat simple gestures displayed by a human than by an inanimate object
6mo:infants perceive human actions as purposeful and know that humans behave differently toward people than inanimate objects
9mo: engage in JOINT ATTENTION
12-14mo: infants follw an adults eyes to objects that an adult is looking at and are likely to vocalize or point when they lock on the visual target
18mo: toddlers have discovered that desires influence behavior and can often reason accurately about others' desires
2-3 yrs: they talk about mental states such as feelings and desires and display some understanding of the connections b/w different mental states; also aware that they may know something others don't and that others can't actually observe their thoguths; still a primitive understanding
* 2-3 yr. olds
*an early theory of mind in which a person's actions are thought to be a reflection og her desires rather than other mental states such as beliefs
*age 3-4
* theory of mind that develops between ages 3-4, the child now realizes that both beliefs and desires may determine behavior and that people will often act on their beliefs, even if they are inaccurate
method of assessing one's understanding that people can hold inaccurate beliefs that can influence their conduct, wrong as those beliefs may be
Achieving Theroy of Mind
*between 3-4, kids' theory of mind progresses from a desire theory to a belief0desire theory that more closely resembles adults' conception of how the mind works
*once children achieve this milestone, which is fostered by pretend play and conversations about mental states with parents, siblings and other adults, they more clearly distinguish their private self from their public self and are better prepared to make meaningful psychological inferences about their own and others' behavior
Origins of THeory of Mind
*one view is that infants are biologically programmed to understand beliefs, desires, and other mental states b/c the ability to "read minds" is adaptive and allows for the evolution of cooperative divisions of labor and more accurate assessments of the motives of rival grps that might threaten survival
*Social experiences also foster development: pretend play, family discussions, sibling interactions
Cultural Influences on Theory of Mind
*The appearance of of a belief-desire theory of mind by age 4 is not universal and is likely to be delayed in cultures that lack the social supports for its emergence
Cultural Influences on Self-Concept
*the traditional values and beliefs of one's culture can dramatically influence the kinds of self-concepts that emerge
* One's evaluation of one's worth as a person based on an assessment of the qualities that make up the self-concept
Origins of self-esteem
*Bowlby's "working models" theory predicts that securely attached children, who construct + working model of self, should soon begin to evaluate themselves more positively than insecurely attached children with - working models of self.
Development of Self-Esteem
*(Harter) 4-7 yr. olds recognize that they are better at some activities than others; but, they rate themselves as relatively globally competent
Age 8: self-evaluations become more realistic and mirror others evaluations of them (think looking glass self that Cooley spoke of)
Adolescence: becomes increasingly differentialted and centered on iterpersonal relationships - relational self worth; all domains of relational self worth contribute to one's global self esteem, although some domains may be important than others to the child
*girls have higher self esteem when they have supportive friendships while boys have higher self-esteem when they influence peers
Factors contributing to self-esteem
*inherent competence and social attractiveness (globally)
*parenting factors: supportive, warm; set clear stnadards for child to live up to; allowing child say in decisions which personally affect him/her
*peers: comparing themselves to their peers and how they stack up
*feelings of self worth within a particular relationship context (for ex., w/ parents or classmates) may differ across relationship contexts
the process of defining and evaluating self by comparing oneself to other people
Stability of Self-Esteem
*young adolescents who experience many physical, cognitive, and social changes associated w/ pubert often become confused and show some erosion of self-esteem as they begin to search for an adult identity
* erosion is most likely in those experiencing MULTIPLE stressors at the same time
*self esteem does show some temporal stability during adolescence in that those who enter it with a reasonable favorable sense of self-esteem are likely to exit with self-esteem intact and can look forward to a gradual increase into adulthood
Cuture, Ethnicity, and Self-Esteem
*children from collectivist societies report lower self-esteem than those from individualistic societies
*reflects the different emphases that individualistic and collectivist societies place on individual accomplishments and self-promotion
*acknowledging one's weaknesses actually make collectivist children feel better
* AA and Hispanic children report lower levels of self esteem than Euro-American and Asian-American children, yet African American and Hispanic adolescents tend to have higher self esteem especially if they have been encouraged to take pride in their heritage
Self Control
*ability to reglate own conduct and to inhibit own actions
Development of Self COntrol
* 2yrs: evidence of compliance; behavior still controlled by external factors
3.5yrs: more able to delay gratification and inhibit responses
*Use of distraction:
-6-8yrs: physical distractions
-11-12: abstract ideation for distraction
*Self control is a reasonably stable characteristic
*think ADHD
Factors of Self-Control
*Associated with: cognitive competency, social skills, self-confidence, and self-reliance
*these factors predict: self-esteem in adolescents, occupational success in adulthood, gereral life satisfaction as an adult
*A mature self-definition; a sense of who one is, where one is going in life, and how one fits onto society
Identity Formation - Erickson
*said that adolescents had to resolve an IDENTITY CRISIS: uncertainty and discomfort that adolescents experience when they become confused about their present and future roles in life
* this process is a lot less crisi like than Erickson assumed
Identity Formation: James Marcia's 4 Identity Statuses
1. IDENTITY DIFFUSION: individuals are not questioning who they are and have not committed themselves to an identity
2. FORECLOSURE: individuals who have prematurely committed themselves to occupations or ideologies w/out really thinking about these committments
MORATORIUM: (where Erickson's id crisis fits in) individuals who are currently experiencing ad identity crisis and are actively exploring occupational and ideological positions in which they inverst themselves
4: IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT: individuals who have carefully considered identity issues and have made firm commitments to an occupation and ideologies
Developmental Trends in Identity Formation
*May occur through college age
* Some aread come at different times/ ages, such as sexual identity and occupational identity
* you can achieve a strong identity in one area and still be in other stages for another area
Self Esteem and Identity Formation
*identity achievers have higher self esteem than age mates in other 3 stages
*Erickson viewed identity achievement as a prereq for having truly intimate relationships during the intimacy vs. isolation phase that he talks about (which is true)
*long term failure to establish identity become depressed and lack self-confidence, or they may embrace a NEGATIVE IDENTITY - a direct opposition to that which parents and most adults would advocate
Influences on Identity Formation
*Cognitive: achieving solid matery of formal opperational thought makes it easier to establish one's own identity
*Parental: warm, supportive parents who encourage individual self-expression
*Culture: one that permits and expects adolescents to find their own niches helps
Identity formation in Minority Youth
*achieving a positive ETHNIC IDENTITY - sense of belonging to an ethnic group and committing oneself to that group's traditions or culture, fosters healthy identity outcomes in other aread of life
the tendency to form impressions of others by comparing and contrasting their overt behaviors
tendency to base one's impressions of others on the stable traits these individuals are presumed to have
tendency to form impressions of others by comparing and contrasting these individuals on abstract psychological demensions
the ability to assume another person's perspective and understand his or her intentions, thoughts, and feelings
Knowing about others
*kids younger that 7-8 are more likely to describe friends in the same concrete observational terms that they describe themselves
*As they compare themselves and others on noteworthy behavioral deminsions, they become more attuned to regularities in their own and others' conduct (behaviral comparisons phase), and later begin to rely on stable psychological constructs, or traits, to describe these patterns (psychological constructs phase). Young adolescents impressions of others become more abstract as they begin to make psychological comparisons among friends
Age 14-16: adolescents are becoming sophisticated "personality theorists" wo know that contect can cause someone to act out of character
*an inborn motive to explore, understand, and control one's environment
*a basic aim of socialization is to build on children's inborn mastery motivation to encourage them to pursue important objectives and to take pride in their accomplishments
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION: a willingness to strive to succeed at challenging tasks and to meet high standards of accomplishment
McClelland's Motivational View of Achievement
NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT (nAch): depiction of achievement motivation as a learned motive to compete and to strive for success in situations in which one's performance can be evaluated against some standard of excellence
*depicts the high achiever as having an INTRINSIC ORIENTATION, or a desire to achieve in order to satisfy one's own personal needs for competence or mastery
*individual's achievement motive depended on quality of "achievement training" based on their culture, social class, and attitudes of their parents about the value of independence and achievement
*view the motication to achieve as a need to attain social approval and other external incentives, thus the high achiever is presumed to have an EXTRINSIC ORIENTATION, a desire to achieve in order to earn external incentives such as grades, prizes, or the approval of others
Early Reactions to one's accomplishments
*(Joy of mastery):Infants are guided by a mastery motive and take pleasure in their everyday accomplishments
*(Approval-Seeking): By age 2, toddlers have begun to anticipate others' approval or disapproval of their performances
*(Use of Standards): age 3 and up evaluate their accomplishments against performance standards and can experience pride or shame, depending on how successfully they meet those standards
*31/2-5: winning a competition is bliss, but losing is not yet considered a failure
Need Achievement Theory (ith Atkinson's revisions)
*reserach testing McClelland's need acievement theory pointed to two competing motives -
that influence achievement behavior.
*Atkinson also broke new ground by stressing that 2 achievement related cognitions, 1:ACHIEVEMENT EXPECTANCIES and 2: ACHIEVEMENT VALUE, are important determinants of achievement behaviors
* Atkinson's term for the disposition describing one's tendency to approach challenging tasks and take pride in mastering them; analogous to McClelland's need for achievement
*Atkinson's term for the disposition describing one's tendency to shy away from challenging tasks so as to avoid the embarrassment of failing
*percieved value of attaining a particular goal should one strive to achieve it
*cognitive expectations of succeeding or failing at a particular achievement related activity
*grew out of the earlier work on LOCUS OF CONTROL and focused on how the CAUSAL ATTRIBUTIONS we make for our successes and failures influence our achievement expectancies and the perceived value of success (or failures)
*personality dimension distinguishing people who assume that they are personally responsible for their life outcomes (internam locus) from those who believe that their outcomes depend more on circumstances beyond their control (external locus)
*Crandall says that internal locus of control is conducive to achievement while external locus of control is not
*conclusions drawn about the underlying causes of one's own or another person's behavior
*Weiner says that people are likely to attribute their successes or failures to 4 causes: (1) their ability (or lack thereof) (2) the amount of effort expended (3) difficulty (or ease) of a task or (4) the influence of luck
*belief that one's ability can be improved through increased effort and practice
*belief that one's ability is a highly stable trait that is not influenced much by effort or practice
*This theory identified two contrasting achievement orientations
(1) MASTERY ORIENTED: these children attribute their successes to stable, internal causes (such as high ability) and their failures on unstable causes (lack of effort) and they retain an incremental view of ability; consequently, they feel quite competent and will work hard to overcome failures
(2)LEARNED HELPLESSNESS ORIENTED: these children often stop trying after a failure because they display an entity view of ability and attribute their failures to a lack of ability that they feel they can do little about.
*Children who are often criticized for their lack of ability and who feel pressured to adopt PERFORMANCE GOALS rather than LEARNING GOALS are at risk of becoming helpless.
*Helpless children can become more mastery-oriented if they are taught (through ATTRIBUTIONAL TRAINING) that there failures can and often should be attributed to unstable causes, such as lack of effort, that they can overcome by trying harder.
*parents and teachers can prevent learned helplessness by praising children for their accomplishments, although PROCESS PRAISE is likely to be much more effective than PERSON PRAISE.
a tendency to persist at challenging tasks because of a belief that one has the ability to succeed and/or that earlier failures can be overcome by trying harder
tendency to give up or to stop trying after failing b/c these failures have been attributed to a lack of ability that one can do little about
therapeutic intervention in which helpless children are persuaded to attribute failures to their lack of effort rather than a lack of ability
state of affairs in which one;s primary objective in an achievement contect is to display one's competencies (or to avoid looking incompetent)
state of affairs in which one's primary objective in an achievement context os to increase one's skills or abilities
PERSON (or trait) PRAISE
praise focusing on desirable personality traits such as intelligence; this praise fosters performance goals in achievement contexts
praise of effort expended to to formulate good ideas and effective problem solving strategies; this praise fosters learning goals in achievement contexts
Cultural and Subcultural Influences in Achievement
* one's cultural heritage can clearly affect one's orientation towards achievement
*collectivist societies: taught to suppress individualism and to work for greater food of group
individualistic: taught to be more self-reliant and to stress personal accomplishments as indicators of achievement
*Academic achievement varies as a function of SES. Subtle parenting style differences and well as disruptive peer influences and STEREOTYPE THREAT, seem to contribute to the poor academic performance of underachieving ethnic minorities
*regardless of ethnicity, kids from disadvantage bkgd.s face serious risks of becoming academic underachievers
*COMPENSATORY INTERVENTIONS, especiall TWO GENERATION INTEVENTIONS and/or those that start early and last at least through preschool, can significantly reduce the academic risks these children face
a fear that one will be judged to have traits associated with negative social stereotypes about one's ethnic group
special education programs designed to further the cognitive growth and scholastic achievements of disadvantaged children
interventions with goals of (1) stimulating children's intellectual development and readiness for school throughout preschool day care and education and (2) assisting parents to gain parenting skills and to move out of poverty
Home and Family Influences on Achievement
*securely attached toddlers and infants are likely to become curios preschoolers who seek challenges and do well later in school
*stimulating home environments that provide young kids with a variety of age appropriate challenges and the encouragement and support to master them will foster academic achievement in the years ahead
*Early INDEPENDENCE TRAINING and ACHIEVEMENT TRAINING promote achievement motivation, especially if parents warmly reinforce successes and are not overly critical of failures.
*Parents who combine all these practices into one parenting style (AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING) tend to raise kids who achieve considerable academic achievement
a measure of the amount and type of intellectual stimulation provided by a child's home environment
encouraging children to become self-reliant by accomplishing goals without others' assistance
encouraging children to do things well- that is, to meet or exceed high standards as they strive to accomplish various objectives
flexible, democratic style of parenting in which warm, accepting parents provide guidance and unintrusive control while allowing the child some say in deciding how best to meet challengeds and obligations
the ability to generate novel ideas, works, or solutions that are useful and valued by others
thinking that requires one to generate the single correct answer to a problem, what IQ tests measure
thinking that requires one to generate a variety of ideas or problem solutions when there is no one correct answer
Thery specifying that the ability to invest in innovative projects and genrate creative solutions depends on a convergence of creative resources, namely background knowledge, intellectal abilities, pertinent personality traits, motivation, and environmental support and encouragement
A look at creativity
Creativity is not closely related to general intelligence nor influenced heavily by one's genotype, but can be nurtured by parents who encourage intellectual curiosity and allow children freedom to pursue their own interests in depth
*earlier viewpoints equated creativity with divergent thinking, which contributes, but does not fully explain one's creative accomplishments
*Recent multicomponent perspectives, such as investment theory of creativity, specify that a variety of cognitive, personal, motivational, and environmental resources combine to foster creative problem solving. This theory looks very promising in terms of both its existing empirical support and its suggestions for fostering creativity
the process by which children acquire a gender identity as well as the motives, values, and behaviors considered appropriate in their society for members of their biological sex
motive, value, or behavior considered more appropriate for members of one sex than the other
*many societies are characterized by a gender based division of labor in which females are encouraged to adopt an expressive role and males an instrumental role
a social prescription, usually directed toward females, that one should be cooperative, kind, nuturant, and sensitive to the needs of others
a social prescription, usually directed toward males, that one should be dominant, independent, assertive, competitive, and goal-oriented
*girls outperform boys in many assessments of verbal ability
*girls are more emotionally expressive, compliant, and timid than boys
*boys are more active and more physically and verbally aggressive than girls
*boys have higher self-esteem than girls
boys outperform girls on tests of arithmetic reasoning and visual/spatial skills
**IN ALL, these sex differences are SMALL, and males and females are far more psychologically SIMILAR than they are different
*females are more sociable, suggestible, and illogical, less analytical, and less achievement oriented than males
*The persistence of theses "cultural myths" can create self fulfilling prophecies that promote sex differences in cognitive performance and steer males and females along different career paths
*the awareness of one's gender and its implications
Developing Gender Concept
6mo: infants use differences in vocal pitch to discriminate female from male speech
12mo: reliably discriminate men from women in photos; beginning to match male and female voices to faces in tests of intermodal perception
2-3yrs: kids begin telling is what they know about gender as they acquire and correctly use labels like mommy, daddy, boy, and girl
2.5-3: accurately label themselves as boys or girls
5-7: realize that sex is an unchanging thing
Development of Gender-Role Stereotypes
*toddlers begin to acquire gender role stereotypes at about the same age that they can identify their own gender
*preschool and early gd. school years: know more about toys, activities, and achievement domains considered appropriate for boys and girls
Gd. School: draw sharp distinctions b/w sexes on psychological dimensions, learning first the positive traits of their own gender and then the negative traits associated with the other sex
*10-11: children's stereotyping of personality traits rivals that of adults
How seriously do children take their gender role prescriptions?
3-7 yrs: very seriously, acting like little chauvinists, treating gender role standards as blanket rules that cannot be broken
8-9: kids become more flexible and less chauvinistic about gender
early adolescence: even more flexible
into adolescence: become very rigid again
later in h.s." become a bit more flexible again
a magnification of sex differences early in adolescence, associated with increased pressure to conform to traditional gender roles
Development of Gender Typed Behavior
*2 yr olds: girls already prefer to play with other girls
*age 3: boys are picking other boys over girls as companions
*age 6.5: kids spend more than 10 times as much time w/ same sex playmates than w/ opposite sex companions, and when they do play w/ someone of the opposite sex, they usually have a companion of the same sex with them
Grade School and Preadolescent Kids: generally find cross gender contacts less pleasing and are likely to behave negatively toward opposite sex peers
*Adolescence: decline in gender segregation w/ onset of puberty
Cognitive and Social Development of Gender Segregation
*once preschoolers label themselves as boys or girls and begin to acquire stereotypes, they come to favor the grp that they belong to and will eventually see the other sex as a homogenous OUT-GROUP with many negative characteristics
"this makes me a girl"
Sex Differences in Gender Typed Behavior
* boys face stronger pressure to adhere to gender roles than girls
*boys are quicker than girls to adopt gender typed toy differences
*age 4-10: girls are more likely than boys to retain an interest in cross sex toys, games and activities
children's tendency to associate wth same sex playmates and to think of the other sex as an out-grop
Subculture Variations on Gender Typing
*middle-class adolescents (but not children) hold more flexible gender-role attitudes than low SES peers
*AA children hold less stereotyped views of women than Euro-American children
*these variations are attributed to differences in education and family life
*children raised in "countercultural" or "avant-garde" homes are less gender typed than those from traditional families
Evolutionary Theory
*sex differences and gender based division of labor have evolved over the course of human history
Social-Roles Hypothesis
*contrasting evolutionary theorists, the notion that psychological differences b/w the sexes and other gender-role stereotypes are created and maintained by differences in socially assigned roles that men and women play
Money and Ehrhardt's Biosocial Theory
*emphasizes biological developments that occur before birth and influence the way a child is socialized
*the behavior of ANDROGENIZED FEMALES implies that prenatal androgen levels may contribute to the sex differences in play styles and activity preferences
*yet the development of some children raised as members of the other sex (for example, those with TESTICULAR FEMINIZATION SYNDROME) and cross cultural comparisons illustrate that social labeling and gender role socialization can play an important role in determining one's gender identity and role preferences
a genetic anomaly in which a male fetus is insensitive to the effects of male sex hormones and will develop felale like external genitalia
the process by which children acquire a gender identity as well as the motives, values, and behaviors considered appropriate in their society for members of their biological sex
motive, value, or behavior considered more appropriate for members of one sex than the other
*many societies are characterized by a gender based division of labor in which females are encouraged to adopt an expressive role and males an instrumental role
a social prescription, usually directed toward females, that one should be cooperative, kind, nuturant, and sensitive to the needs of others
a social prescription, usually directed toward males, that one should be dominant, independent, assertive, competitive, and goal-oriented
*girls outperform boys in many assessments of verbal ability
*girls are more emotionally expressive, compliant, and timid than boys
*boys are more active and more physically and verbally aggressive than girls
*boys have higher self-esteem than girls
boys outperform girls on tests of arithmetic reasoning and visual/spatial skills
**IN ALL, these sex differences are SMALL, and males and females are far more psychologically SIMILAR than they are different
*females are more sociable, suggestible, and illogical, less analytical, and less achievement oriented than males
*The persistence of theses "cultural myths" can create self fulfilling prophecies that promote sex differences in cognitive performance and steer males and females along different career paths
*the awareness of one's gender and its implications
Developing Gender Concept
6mo: infants use differences in vocal pitch to discriminate female from male speech
12mo: reliably discriminate men from women in photos; beginning to match male and female voices to faces in tests of intermodal perception
2-3yrs: kids begin telling is what they know about gender as they acquire and correctly use labels like mommy, daddy, boy, and girl
2.5-3: accurately label themselves as boys or girls
5-7: realize that sex is an unchanging thing
Development of Gender-Role Stereotypes
*toddlers begin to acquire gender role stereotypes at about the same age that they can identify their own gender
*preschool and early gd. school years: know more about toys, activities, and achievement domains considered appropriate for boys and girls
Gd. School: draw sharp distinctions b/w sexes on psychological dimensions, learning first the positive traits of their own gender and then the negative traits associated with the other sex
*10-11: children's stereotyping of personality traits rivals that of adults
How seriously do children take their gender role prescriptions?
3-7 yrs: very seriously, acting like little chauvinists, treating gender role standards as blanket rules that cannot be broken
8-9: kids become more flexible and less chauvinistic about gender
early adolescence: even more flexible
into adolescence: become very rigid again
later in h.s." become a bit more flexible again
Evolutionaty theory
* sex differences and gender based division of labor have evolved over time b/c males and females faced different evolutionary pressures and challenges over the course of human history
social-role hypothesis
attribute differences to variations in the socially assigned roles than men and women play
Money and Ehrhardt's Biosocial theory
*emphasizes biological developments that occur before birth and influence the way a child is socialized
*THe behavior of androgenized females implies that prenatal androgen levels may contribute to sex differences in play styles and activity preferences
*yet, the development of some children raised as members of the other sex (for example. testicular feminization syndrome) and cross cultural comparisons illustrate that social lebeling and gender-role socialization can play a big role in determinging one's gender identity and role preferences
Psychobiosocial Model
explains how biological and social influences might interact to produce sex differences in behavior
Freud's Psychodynamic THeory
* he believed that children became gender typed during the phallic stage when identifying with same sex parent to overcome Oedipus and Electra Complexes
- no evidence that this is true
Social Learning Theory
*children acquire many of their earliest gender-typed toy and activity preferences through DIRECT TUITION (or differential reinforcement)
*Observational learning also contributes to gender typing as preschool children attend to models of both sexes and become increasingly aware of gender stereotypes
teaching young children how to behave by reinforcing "appropriate" behaviors and by punishing or otherwise discouraging inappropriate conduct
Kohlberg's Cognitive-Developmental Theory
*claims that children are self-socializers who must pass through BASIC GENDER IDENTITY and GENDER STABILITY before reaching GENER CONSISTENCY, the point at which they begin to selectively attend to same sex models and become gener typed
*however, research shows that gender typing begins much earlier than Kohlberg thought and that measures of gender consistency do not predict the strength of gender typing
the stage of gender identity in which the child first labels the self as a boy or girl
the stage of gender identity in which the child recognizes that gender is stable over time
the stage of gender identity in which the child recognizes that a person's gender is invariant despite changes in the person's activities or appearance
Martin and Halverson's Gender Schema Theory
*children who have established a basic gender identity construct "IN-GROUP/ OUT-GROUP" and OWN-SEX GENDER SCHEMAS, which serve as scripts for processing gender related information and socializing oneself into a gender rold.
*schema consistent info is gathered and retained, whereas schema-inconsistent info. is ignored or distorted, thus perpetuation gender stereotypes that have no basis in fact.
organized sets of beliefs and expectations about males and females that guide information processing
one's general knowledge of the mannerisms, roles, activities, and behaviors that characterize males and females
detailed knowledge or plans of action that enable a person to perform gender consistent activities and to enact his or her gender role
Itegrative Theory
THe best account of gender typing is an eclectic, integrative theory that recognizes that processes emphasized in biosocial, psychobiosocial, social-learning, cognitive-developmental, and gender schema theories all contribute to gender role development
a gender role orientation in which the individual has incorporated a large # of both masculine and feminine attributes into his or her own personality
*research says that they do exist, are relatively popular, well-adjusted, and may be adaptable to a wider variety of environmental demands than people who are traditionally gender typed
*parents and teachers can prevent rigid stereotyping by emphasizing that sex is pretty much irrelevant outside the domain of reproduction, encouraging and modeling other-sex and same sex activities, and highlighting and discussing exceptions to unfounder stereotypes children may have acquired
aspect of self referring to erotic thoughts, actions, and orientation
Cultural Influence on development of sexuality
*some societies are rather permissive about childhood sexuality
*restrictive societies supress sexual expression
*US is conservative and nonpermissive towards early teenage sex and premarital sex in general
*parents in restrictive societies often do not answer children's questions about sex and leave the task of preparing for sexual relations up to the children themselves; most learn from peers
Sexual Attitudes
*attitudes about sex have become increasingly liberal over the years
*a majority of adolescents now think that sex with affection is acceptable and are rejejcting the DOUBLE STANDARD for sexual behavior
*teen sex activity has increased, although the sexual behavior of girls has changed more than that of boys
Consequences of Adolescent Sexual Activity
*large numbers of sexually active teens fail to use contraception regularly, thus placing themselves at risk for STDs or pregnancy
*adolescent pregnancy and childbearing represent a major social prob in the US
*Unmarried teen mothers, many of whom are poor and ill-prepared psychologically to be parents, often drop out of school and perpetuate their economic disadvantage
*their poor parenting contributes to the emotional problems and cognitive dificiencies their kids often display
How to Help
*discussions about sex and reproductive health at hole, coupled with reasonable parental monitoring of adolescents activities, improved sex education and contraceptive services, and programs such as Teen Outreach stressing life-skills training, can help reduce sexual risk and the rate of teen pregnancy
a concern for the welfare of others that is expressed through such prosocial acts as sharing, cooperating, and helping
MOTIVATIONAL/INTENTIONAL DEFINITION OF ALTRUISM: beneficial acts for which the actor's primary motive or intent was to address the needs of others
*BEHAVIORAL DEFINITION OF ALTRUISM: behavior that benefits another person, regardless of actor's motives
actions such as sharing, helping, or comforting, that benefit other people
a set of principles or ideals that help the individual to distinguish right from wrong, to act on this distinction, and to feel pride in virtuous conduct and guilt or shame for conduct that violates one's standards
Evolutionary Theory
*altruism is preadaptive, genetically programmed motive that evolved b/c it promotes the survival of the individual and the specied
Psychoanalytic Theory
*assume that altruistic values are internalized and become part of one's superego
the principle that we should help others who are in some way dependent on us for assistance
Social Learning Theory
*believe that altruistic habits are acquired and maintained b/c children learn that prosocial behavior is in some way reinforcing
*relieving empathetic responses
*reinforcing prosocial acts
*learning by observation - most pervasive influence on children's prosocial concern is the behavior of other people
Cognitive-Developmental Theory
*argue that growth of altruistic concern depends on fundamental cognitive changes that occur during childhood, including
(1) a gradual decline in egocentrism
(2) the development of role-taking skills
(3) the growth of empathetic concern and prosocial moral reasoning
Developmental Trends in Altruism
2 yrs: begin to show signs of sharing; begin to show sympathy for others' distress
3-6: relatively egocentric; will act prosocially if it benefits them as well or if someone makes them
Mid. Childhood - Preadolescence: acquire role-taking skills; can use this as justifucation for pro-social behavior; from elementary school on, pro-social behavior becomes more common
Adolescence: understnad implications of social norms; act pro-socially because of universal principles (ex: the golden rule)
Cognitive and Affective Contributors to Altruism
* the growth of altruistic concern is linked to the development of SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE TAKING SKILLS, PROSOCIAL MORAL REASONING, SYMPATHETIC EMPATHETIC AROUSAL, and establishment of an altruistic self-concept
*although young children often interpret empathetic arousal as personal or SELF-ORIENTED DISTRESS, they eventually acquire the role taking skills to interpret their reactions as sympathy for others, which promotes altruism bu inducing them to feel responsible for others' welfacre (the FELT RESPONSIBILITY HYPOTHESIS)
the ability to infer others' thoughts, intertions, motives, and attitudes
the thinking that people display when deciding whether to help, share with, or comfort others when these actions could prove costly to themselves
tendency to give the benefit of the doubt to peers rather than quickly assuming that their displeasing actions reflect a hostile or antisocial intent
feelings of sympathy or compassion that may be elicited when we experience the emotions of (that is, empathize with) a distressed other' thought to become an important mediator of altruism
feeling of personal discomfort or distress that may be elicited when we exoerience the emotions of (that is, emaothize with) a distressed other; thought to inhibit altruism
the theory that empathy may promote altruism by causing ome to reflect on altruistic norms and thus to feel some obligation to help others who are distressed
Cultural influences on ALtruism
*prosocial conduct is much more apparent in collectivist societies than in individualistic societies
Social influences on altruism
*Parents: can promote altruistic behavior through their ALTRUISTIC EXHORTATIONS, by praising their child's kindly deeds, and by practicing themsleves the prosocial lessons they have preached;
*parents who discipline harmdoing woth nonpunitive, affective explanations that point out the negative effects of one's misconduct on victims are likely to raise kids who become sympathetic, self-sacrificing, and concerned with the welfare of others
verbal encouragement ro help, comfort, share, or cooperate with others
Psychoanalytic theory or morality
*Freud's thery of Oedipal morality: children internalize the moral standards of the same sex parent during the phallic stage as they resolve their Oedipal or Electra complexes and form a conscious or superego
the process of adopting the attributes or stnadards of other people - taking these standards as one's own
the emotional component of morality, including feeling sich as empathy, guilt, shame, and pride in ethical conduct
the cognitive component of morality; tje thinking that people dislay when deciding whether various acts are right or wrong
the behavioral component of morality; actions that are considered with one's moral standards in situations in which one is tepted to violate them
Criticism and Praise for Freud's theory
*it's wrong
*but, newer ideas and research imply that a conscience can begin to develop in toddlerhood in the context of a warm, MUTUALLY RESPONSIVE RELATIONSHIP,in which the child shows a strong sense of COMMITTED COMPLIANCE rather rhan SITUATIONAL COMPLIANCE
paernt-child relationship characterized by mutual responsiveness to each other's needs and goals and shared positive affect
compliance based on the child's eagerness to cooperate with a responsive parent who has been willing to cooperate with him or her
compliance based primarily on a parent's power to control the child's conduct
Piaget's cognitive developmental theory of morality
* two stage model of moral development based on changes that occur in children's conceptions or rules and their sense of social justice
*PREMORAL PERIOD: first 5 years of life in which children have little respect or awareness of socially defined rules
*HETERONOMOUS MORALITY: first stage of moral development in which children view the rules of authority figures as sacred and unalterable; the child believes in IMMANENT JUSTICE - the notion that unacceptable conduct will invariably be punished and that justce is ever-present in the world
*AUTONOMOUS MORALITY: second stage or moral develoment in which children realize that rules are arbitrary agreements that can be challenged and changed with the consent of the people they govern
Critcism for Piaget's theory
*Failure of his research methods and his failure to capture children's distinctions between MORAL RULES, SOCIAL CONVENTIONAL RULES, and PERSONAL CHOICES caused him to underestimate the moral sophistication of preschool and young grade-school children
standards of acceptable and unacceptable conduct that focus on the rights and privileges of individuals
standards of conduct determined by social consensus that indicate what is appropriate within a particular socil contect
decisions about one's conduct that are (or should be, in the person's view) under personal jurisdiction and not regulated by the rules of authority figures (choices of friends or liesure activities)
Kohlberg's revision and extension of Piaget's theory
*views moral reasoning as progressing through an invariant sequence of 3 levels, each composed of 2 distinct stages.
*the progression in invariant because each of these modes of thinking depends, in part, on the development of cognitive abilities that evolve in a fixed sequence. Yet, Kohlberg also claimed that no moral growth occurs in the absence of social experiences that woild cause a person to reevaluate her existing moral concepts
*research shows that Kohlberh's stages do form an invariant sequence
Preconvetional Morality
*moral judgements are based on the tangible punitive consequences (Stage 1) or rewarding consequences (Stage 2) of an act for the actor rather than on the relationship of that act to society's rules and customs
Conventional Morality
Moral judgements are based on a desire to gain approval (Stage 3) or to uphold laws that maintain social order (stage 4)
Postconventional Morality
moral judgements are based on social contracts and democratic law (stage 5) or on universal principles or ethics and justice (stage 6)
More info on Kohlberg
*both cognitive development and such relavant social experiences as exposure to divergent maral perspectives in the contect of TRANSACTIVE INTERACTIONS with parents, peers, and other participants in higher education or democratic activities do contribute to the growth of moral reasoning
*however, his theory may not adequately describe the morality of people in many non-westernized societies or who emphasize a MORALITY OF CARE rather than a MORALITY of JUSTICE
*like Piaget, Kohlberg clearly underestimates the moral reasoning of young children
*theory says too little about moral affect and moral behavior too
verbal exchanges in which individuals perform mental operations on the reasoning of their discussion partners
Gilligan's term for what she presumes to be the dominant moral orientation of males, focusing more in socially defined justice as administered through law than on compassionate concerns for human welfare
Gilligan's term for what she presumes to be the dominant moral orientation for females, an orientation focusing more on compassionate concerns for human welface than on socially defined justice as administered through law
Morality as a product of social learning (and social information processing)
*Although their DOCTRINE OF SPECIFICITY is clearly an overstatement, social learning theorists have helped to explain how children come to resist temptation and inhibit acts that violate moral norms
*among the factors that promote the development of INHIBITORY CONTROLS are praise given for virtuous conduct, punishments that include appropriate rationales, moral self-concept training, and exposing the child to (or having the child serve as) models or moral restraint
a viewpoint shared by many social learning theorists, which holds that moral affect, moral reasoning, and moral behavior may depend on the situation one faces as much if not more than the internalized set of moral principles
an ability to display acceptable conduct by resisting the temptation to commit a forbidden act
Who raises morally mature kids?
*Use of INDUCTIVE DISCIPLINE promotes moral maturity, whereas LOVE WITHDRAWL has little effect, and POWER ASSERTION is associated with moreal immaturity.
*The effectiveness of induction may vary, however, depending on the child's temperment
*children generally prefer inductive discipline to other approaches, and most seem highly motivated to accept influence from an inductive adult whose methods they can respect
*a nonpunitive form of discipline in which an adult explains why a child's behavior is wrong and should be changed by enphasizing its effects on others
a form of discipline in which an adult withholds attention, affection, or approval in order to modify or control a child's behavior
*a form of discipline in which an adult relies on his or her superior power (spankings, witholding privileges) to modify or control a child's behavior