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112 Cards in this Set

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Cell
- is the basic living, structural and functional unit of the body.
- cell division
All cells arise from existing cells by .
cytology
- the study of the cell
Plasma membrane
- surrounds the cell and occurs as a lipid bilayer (two back-to-back lipid layers) with interspersed proteins.
fluid mosaic
- proteins can move within the lipids
Phospholipids
- orient in a bi-layer to make the basic framework of the membrane.
- represent about 75% of membrane lipids.
- serve to prevent the movement of many chemicals through the membrane.
- give the membrane flexibility.
Glycolipids
- help form an outer coat on the cell called the glycocalyx.
Cholesterol
- strengthens the membrane.
Membrane proteins
- they largely determine what function a cell will perform and can vary from cell to cell.
Ion channels
- have a water filled pore through which certain ions can pass.
Transporters (carrier proteins)
- move a certain polar chemical from one side to the other by changing the transporter’s shape.
Receptor proteins
- bond to a specific chemical in the extracellular (outside) fluid to signal the cell to carry out a specific function.
Ligands
- are molecules that bond to a specific receptor.
Enzymes
- speed up chemical reactions.
Cell identity markers (glycoproteins)
- help cells recognize each other.
Linkers
- anchor proteins of neighboring cells to each other or they anchor filaments to the plasma membrane.
Selective permeability
- the membrane allows some chemicals to pass through but prevents passage of others.
Of those that pass through the cell membrane:
-Chemicals that dissolve in lipids (nonpolar) and very small polar molecules pass through the lipids.
- Other molecules will pass through channels or transporters but these are usually very specific as to what they allow through.
Fluidity
- the membrane is flexible enough that it self-seals after being punctured.
Chemical gradient (change over a space)
- the selectively permeable membrane maintains different concentrations of various chemicals in the cytosol (fluid inside cell) vs. extracellular fluid.
electrical gradient
-in which the extracellular side is slightly positive and the cytosol side is slightly negative.
Electrochemical
-gradient is the combined concentration and electrical gradients
Kinetic energy transport
- is due to kinetic energy (energy of movement) of chemicals. Some chemicals will pass through the membrane as they are moving around and bump into it.
Simple diffusion
- is the movement of a chemical through the phospholipids or ion channel proteins of a membrane from a higher concentration to a lower concentration.
Osmosis
- is the movement of water molecules through a plasma membrane from a higher concentration of water to a lower concentration of water. Water can move through the phospholipids or through channel proteins called aquaporins.
Facilitated diffusion (facilitated transport)
- is the movement of a chemical through a transporter protein from a higher concentration to a lower concentration. This does not require energy
Active transport (requires energy)
- the cell uses energy to move a chemical from a lower concentration to a higher concentration (against its concentration gradient) through a transporter protein.
Primary active transport
- the movement of a chemical across a membrane from a lower concentration to a higher concentration.
Secondary active transport
- simultaneous movement of Na+ (or H+) and another chemical. This depends on a Na+ (or H+) concentration gradient which is maintained by primary active transport.
Symporter
- transporter protein that moves the other chemical in the same direction as Na+.
Antiporter
- transporter protein that moves the other chemical in the opposite direction to the Na+.
Vesicular transport
- the movement of a material by small membrane-bound spheres (vesicles).
Receptor-mediated endocytosis
- a specific ligand bonds to its receptor on the cell which stimulates that cell to engulf that ligand and form a vesicle.
Phagocytosis
- movement of solid particles into the cell by a vesicle.
Bulk-phase endocytosis (Pinocytosis)
- movement of fluid with dissolved solutes into the cell by a vesicle.
Exocytosis
- a vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents to the outside.
Transcytosis
- a substance is moved through a cell, into one side and out the opposite side.
Osmotic pressure
is the pressure that must be applied to prevent osmotic movement (water movement) across a membrane. The higher the solute concentration of a solution, the greater its osmotic pressure.
Tonicity
is a measure of a solution’s ability to change the volume of cells by altering their water content.(E.g. effects of different solutions on the red blood cell (RBC))
normal saline
solution is a 0.9% NaCl solution, which is isotonic to red blood cells.
Intravenous (IV) solutions
are usually isotonic to prevent damage to RBCs.
Hypertonic solutions
- can be used to treat cerebral edema. (There is too much water in the brain tissue so a more hypertonic blood will “draw” water from this tissue.)
Hypotonic solutions
- can be used to treat dehydration. (The tissues are dehydrated and blood is used as a vehicle to get more water to them.)
Cytosol
- the fluid inside the cell.
- surrounds the other structures.
- composed mostly of water
- the medium in which many metabolic reactions occur
Cytoplasm
- is the area between the plasma membrane and the nucleus. It includes the cytosol and the organelles.
Cytoskeleton
- an internal network of protein filaments that serves to maintain cell’s shape, move structures within the cell, and also move the entire cell.
Centrosome
- serves as a center for organizing microtubules in dividing cells (mitotic spindle) and nondividing cells.
Centrioles
are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another
Flagella
- long whip-like appendages that serve in cell locomotion.
Cilia
- short bristle-like appendages
- serve to move materials over the surface of a stationary cell.
Ribosomes
- serve to directly produce the proteins. -tiny spheres that occur free or bound to endoplasmic reticulum -assemble amino acids into proteins
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER)
- is studded with ribosomes and acts as a site for synthesis of proteins and phospholipids. It extends from the nuclear membrane
Smooth ER
- acts as the major site for synthesis of lipids in general, it also detoxifies toxins.
Golgi complex
- 4-6 stacked flattened membranous sacs. Serves to process, package, and deliver proteins and lipids to the plasma membrane for incorporation into the membrane or for secretion.
Lysosomes
- are vesicles (small membrane-bound spheres) that contain digestive enzymes to break down materials for the cell.
Peroxisomes
- are vesicles that contain enzymes that detoxify materials.
Proteosomes
- breakdown unneeded, damaged, or faulty proteins in the cytosol
Mitochondria (power house)
- serve to produce ATP using energy from the breakdown of food (cell respiration).
- self-replicate using their own circular DNA
- genes (DNA) are usually inherited only from the mother.
Nucleus
- contains the genes which control the structure and many activities of the cell.
Nuclear envelope
- the double membrane that surrounds the nucleus, it has pores that allow water and dissolved materials in and out.
Nucleoli
- smaller spheres in the nucleus that produce the ribosomes.
Chromosome
- a single long DNA molecule or two DNAs that are duplicated and attached to each other
Chromatid
- half of a duplicated chromosome
Chromatin
- the material that is composed of DNA and histone proteins.
(Chromosomes are composed of ____________)
Gene
- is a segment of DNA, which controls one or more traits by coding for a certain polypeptide (part of a protein)
Genome
- the total genetic information carried in a cell or an organism (all of their genes).
Transcription - introns
- the genetic information on the DNA is passed to a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule.
-(mRNA is produced from a DNA template) The DNA of the gene unwinds and bonds between the bases break.
- A mRNA molecule forms off of one side of the DNA (sense strand) by matching their bases.
- In this process the mRNA picks up the genetic information from the DNA.
- The sequences of base triplets of DNA serve as templates for copying the info to mRNA.
- is catalyzed by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
- Segments of mRNA called ______ are cut out and remaining segments called exons are spliced together before the mRNA leaves the nucleus. Different exons can be spliced together to make a greater variety of proteins.
introns
are Segments of mRNA cut out
exons
remaining segments of mRNA are spliced together before the mRNA leaves the nucleus.
G1 phase (gap phase 1)
- the cell produces new organelles to replace those that were lost to the other cell in cell division in this phase
S phase (S = synthesis)
- the chromosomes are duplicated (new DNA is synthesized) in this phase
G2 phase (gap phase 2)
- proteins needed for cell division are produced in this phase
M phase (M = mitosis)
- nucleus divides (mitosis) and the cytoplasm divides (cytokinesis).
Cyclins
- proteins that increase in concentration in between cell divisions to activate other chemicals (Cdks) which stimulate division.
Cyclin
- dependent protein kinases (Cdks)- proteins that stimulate replication of DNA, or prophase to begin.
Apoptosis
- is a normal, genetically programmed cell death that occurs in cells scattered throughout a tissue.
Necrosis
- a pathological cell death that results from tissue injury of many adjacent cells, and usually it stimulates an immune response
Cancer
- an abnormal, out of control, division of cells which tends to spread to other parts of the body.
Tumor (neoplasm)
- excess tissue that develops from uncontrolled cell proliferation.
Metastasis
- the spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body.
Benign tumor
- an abnormal growth of cells that has not spread.
Malignant tumor
- an abnormal growth of cells that has spread to other parts of the body.
glycocalyx
allows the cell to:
- protect itself from being digested.
- become sticky to hold it to other cells.
- or hold a fluid layer creating a slippery surface
Osmosis
- movement of water across a semipermeable membrane

Water moves from an area of [lower solute] to [higher solute]
- occurs only when the membrane is permeable to water but not to certain solutes.
[lower solute]
[higher solute]
in osmosis Water moves from an area of _____ to _____
Translation
(anticodon)
(codon)
- the base sequence along the mRNA is used (decoded) to make a protein that has a certain sequence of amino acids (A.A.s).
- Ribosomes bond with mRNA and move along it.
- Each transfer RNA (tRNA) has a certain sequence of 3 bases exposed at one end _________, and at the other end contains a certain A.A.
- As the ribosomes move along the mRNA it helps the corresponding tRNA bond to each triplet of bases on the mRNA called _______.
The amino acid on the new tRNA forms a peptide bond with the amino acid next to it and the peptide chain grows (protein) as again a new tRNA again arrives
Somatic cell division (mitosis)
- occurs in all body cells except for those cells that directly produce gametes (sperm or egg).
-produce new cells for growth or replacement of dead and injured cells.
- produces 2 daughter cells, each with the same number and kinds of chromosomes as the original mother cell.
diploid number
- two of each kind of chromosome
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
stages of somatic sell division in order
Prophase:
- Chromosomes condense (thicken)
- Nuclear envelope disappears
- Nucleoli disappear
- Mitotic spindle forms
- Centrosomes move to opposite poles
Metaphase:
- chromosomes line up in a single row along the middle (equator)of the cell.
Anaphase:
- chromosomes separate at their centromeres and one copy of each travels to a separate pole.
Telophase:
Chromosomes unwind into more diffuse structures
Nuclear envelope reappears
Nucleoli reappear
Mitotic spindle disappears
Reproductive cell division (meiosis)
- produces gametes (sperm or egg) that will unite to form a new individual in sexual reproduction.
- cuts the chromosome number in half in the gametes to keep the chromosome number constant from generation to generation.
- serves to increase genetic variation in a population of individuals.
aging
- Some cells are not replaced because they won’t divide or divide a limited number of times.

- Telomeres at ends of chromosomes erode with each mitosis event. This contributes to cell death.
-Loss of elasticity, stiffening, due to glucose forming cross links between proteins.
-Free radicals damage cells by oxidizing(stealing e- s from) lipids, proteins, or nucleic acids.
-Autoimmune responses
Autoimmune responses
- as cells age, their cell identity markers sometimes change, which stimulates the immune response to attack those cells.
cancer
The root cause are mutations in the genes that normally control cell division, to form oncogenes.
Carcinogens
- chemicals or radiation that cause cell mutations.
oncogene
- produces an abnormal protein that stimulates cell division. (e.g. abnormal cell division signals or receptor proteins)
- Or can produce a growth factor in excessive amounts or at the wrong time.
-A chromosomal rearrangement occurs to bring a regulator gene near a dormant _______ to activate it.
virus
A _______ may splice an oncogene into a cell’s DNA when it invades that cell.
Tumor suppressor genes
inhibit cell division, but if a mutation occurs to make them nonfunctional, then cancer can develop.
epidemiology
science that deals with why, when, and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted in humans
pharmacology
science that deals with the effects and uses of drugs in the treatment of disease
anaplasia
the loss of tissue differentiation and function that is characteristic in most malignancies
atrophy
decrease in size of cells
susequent decrease in the size of the affected tissue or organ
wasting away
displasia
alteration in size, shape, and organization of cell due to chronic irritation or inflammation that may progress to neoplasia or revert to normal if irritation is removed
hyperplasia
increase in the number of cells due to cell division
hypertrophy
increase in the size of cells without cell division
metaplasia
transformation of one type of cell into another
progeny
offspring or decendents
proteomics
the study of all an organisms proteins in order to identify the proteins produced - so that drugs can be designed to alter protein activity to help in the treatment/diagnosis of a disease
tumor marker
substance introduced in to circulation by tumor cells that indicates the presence and what type of tumor