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91 Cards in this Set

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- are the smallest units of matter that retain the properties and characteristics of an element.
- atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
- atoms or groups of atoms that have a positive or negative charge.
- a combination of two or more atoms covalently bonded together.
- a substance that contains two or more different elements.
- the basic building blocks of all matter (at least 112 know). They are composed of a single kind of atom and cannot be broken down to simpler substances by ordinary means.
- an unstable atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron in its outermost shell.
Free radical
- biologically important atoms with more than one shell are most stable when they have 8 electrons in their outer shell. Therefore, they tend to bond with atoms to obtain 8 electrons in their outer shell.
Octet rule
- are electrons in the outermost shell of an atom.
Valence electrons
- electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another.
Ionic bonds
- electrons are shared between the atoms. The most common chemical bond found in the body and forms most of the body’s structure.
Covalent bonds
- the electrons are not shared equally therefore there is a partial charge (delta d- and d+) on the molecule.
Polar covalent bond
(E.g. Water)
- the electrons are shared equally and therefore there is no charge at that bond.
Nonpolar covalent bond
- the atoms in the bond share one pair of electrons.
Single covalent bond
- the atoms in the bond share two pairs of electrons.
Double covalent bond
- the atoms in the bond share three pairs of electrons.
Triple covalent bond
- is a bond between a partial positive charged (d+) hydrogen on one molecule and a partial negative charged (d-) atom on that same molecule or on a nearby molecule.
Hydrogen bond
- is a compound that dissociates (separates) into positive and negative ions in a solution.
(E.g. Na+ Cl- dissolved in water)
- is a positive charged ion
(e.g. Na+)
- is a negative charged ion
(e.g. Cl-)
- occurs when new bonds form or old bonds break between reactant atoms to make products.
chemical reaction
increase the concentration of reactants - increase the temperature - The presence of catalysts (e.g. enzymes).
The rate of chemical reactions may be increased by:
- is the capacity to do work.
- energy is released during this reaction.
Exergonic reaction
- requires (uses up) energy as it occurs.
Endergonic reaction
- 2 or more atoms or molecules combine to form a larger molecule. (Are usually endergonic)
Synthesis reaction (anabolism)
- larger molecules are broken down into smaller parts. (Are usually exergonic)
Decomposition reactions (catabolism)
- parts of the molecules are switched during a reaction.
Exchange reaction
(Part decomposition and part synthesis reaction)
- the products of a reaction can convert back into the original reactants.
Reversible reaction
- always contains carbon and usually contains hydrogen and always have covalent bonds. The carbons can form short or long chains of bonds with itself. Large carbon compounds do not dissolve easily in water, making them useful for building body structures. Since organic compounds tend to have “carbon backbones”, functional groups such as amino-, carboxyl- and phosphate- can be added that change the chemical properties of the molecule.
Organic Compounds
- generally lack carbon and are structurally simple and small. They can have ionic or covalent bonds
Inorganic Compounds
- a larger molecule is broken down into smaller ones and water is used or broken up. Common in digestion (breakdown) of large nutrient molecules so they can be absorbed into the body.
Hydrolysis reaction
- smaller molecules are joined to make a larger one and water is produced (condensation).
Dehydration synthesis reaction
- are chemicals that when dissolved in water dissociate (separate) into hydrogen ions (H+) and anions.
(e.g. HCl)
- are chemicals that when dissolved in water dissociate into hydroxide ions (OH-) and cations.
(e.g. KOH)
- are chemicals that when dissolved in water dissociate into cations and anions other than H+ or OH-.
(e.g. KCl)
- the most abundant chemical compound in the body.
-an excellent solvent.
- serves as a lubricant.
- The temperature does not readily change in response to the external environment. This helps maintain homeostasis of body temperature.
- participates in chemical reactions .
- is a relative measure of the concentration of H+ and OH- in a solution. It involves a scale from 0-14 - Each increase of one on this scale is a tenfold decrease in H+ concentration
- pH of 7
- pH of less than 7 (more H+ than OH-)
– pH of greater than 7 (more OH-)
- serve to keep the pH of an internal environment relatively constant. A major way they do this is to convert a strong acid or base into a weak acid or base.
Buffer systems
(Buffer against changes in pH)
- large organic molecules that consist of chains of similar smaller molecules called monomers that are covalent bonded together
-molecules that have the same number and kinds of atoms, but the atoms are arranged differently.
(The sugars glucose and fructose both have the formula C6H12O6)
- these make up only around 2-3% of body weight but are very important.
(e.g. simple sugars and polysaccharides)
- typically have a C:H:O ratio of 1:2:1 and usually occur as a single ring (monosaccharides) or 2 rings connected end to end (disaccharides) or tens to hundreds of rings (polysaccharides).
Carbohydrate Structure
- typically serve to provide a ready source of energy (Esp. glucose) or serve in short term food energy storage (Esp. glycogen). Also they make up parts of cells Also they make up parts of cells. The ribose in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Carbohydrate Function
- make up 18-25% of body weight in lean adults.
- typically have twice as much hydrogen as carbon but have less oxygen than carbon.
Lipid Structure
- usually do not dissolve in water.
- water soluble
-hydrophilic (water soluble) proteins.
- are the most plentiful lipids in the body and in the diet - long-term food energy storage.
(neutral fats and oils)
- have hydrogen’s on each carbon and produce a greater risk of cardiovascular disease.
saturated fats
- reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids
Mono and polyunsaturated fats
- two polyunsaturated essential fatty acids that are particularly healthful.
- serve to make up a major part of cell membranes.
- serve as many of the hormones (e.g. sex hormones), and also cholesterol serves as 0part of cell membranes.
- includes prostaglandins that do many things and leukotrienes, which contribute to the inflammation response.
- make up 12-18% of a lean adult’s body and are particularly important in that they are the mechanism through which genes do their work.
- are made of long chains of smaller molecules called amino acids.
Protein Structure
- A chain that is 4-9 amino acids long.
- A chain that is more than 9 amino acids long
The shape of a protein is critical to its function - When the shape is altered, we say that the protein has been ____________
protein has been denatured.
- Form structured framework of part of the body. Function as hormones to regulate physiological processes. Serve to move muscles. Serve in the immune response Transport oxygen and other chemicals. Act as enzyme to speed up chemical reactions.
Protein Function
- is a double helix. It consists of a long helical (bedspring) shaped molecule with 2 sides (like a ladder).
DNA Structure
- chemicals that bond in pairs to form the steps of the ladder. Adenine to thymine and cytosine to guanine
nitrogenous bases
______________ bonds to thymine
________________ bonds to guanine.
- it contains the genes, each of which codes for the synthesis of a specific protein.
DNA Function
- is a long single-stranded molecule (like a ladder cut down the middle). It has the bases adenine, uracil, guanine and cytosine but they are not paired.
RNA Structure
-serves in protein synthesis.
RNA Function
- is a small molecule with the adenine base, ribose sugar, and 3 phosphate groups connected by high energy bonds.
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) Structure
- serves to temporarily carry energy and release it when needed by the cell (energy currency).
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) Function
- speed up the rate of chemical reactions in the body; Also they are a major mechanism by which the genes control the body’s chemistry. A gene causes the production of a certain _______, which causes a certain chemical reaction
-increasing frequency of collisions, lowering the activation energy and properly orienting the colliding molecules.
Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by
- act as catalysts by carrying out a reaction and then are free to carry out another.
- One molecule typically carries out thousands of reactions per second.
- are specific to a certain substrate because their shape at their active site only allows that substrate to fit in and react.
- are subject to cell controls (e.g. are only produced when their gene is activated, also chemicals in the cell may enhance or inhibit them).
Enzyme Characteristics
- the large protein portion of an enzyme
- the nonprotein portion of an enzyme
- An organic cofactor
The four elements that make up approximately ___% of the body are ________, _______, ______, ______
The chemical symbol of Oxygen is
The chemical symbol of Carbon is
The chemical symbol of Hydrogen is
The chemical symbol of Nitrogen is
___________ are located in the nucleous and have a positive charge
___________ are located in the nucleous and have a neutral charge
___________ are located in the outside of the nucleous and have a negative charge