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104 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
the study of structure and relationships among structures
the study of the functions of body parts
atoms and molecules in the body
chemical level
basic structural and functional unit of an organism
cellular level
groups of cell and the materials surrounding them, that work together to perform a common function
tissue level
two or more type of tissues that are organized for a certain function and usually have a reconizable shape
organ level
related organs that have a common function
system level
the individual
organismal level
- returns proteins and fluid to blood
- carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood
- protects against disease causing microbes
lymphatic system & immunity
- achieves physical and chemical breakdown of food
- absobs nutrients
- eliminates solid wastes
digestive system
- produces, stores, and eliminates urine
- eliminates waste, regulates volume and chemical composition of blood
- helps maintain acid-base balance
- maintains mineral balance
- helps regulate production of blood cells
urinary system
-heart pumps blood through blood vessels
- blood carries O2 & nutrients to cells & CO2 and wastes away
- helps regulate acid-base balance, temperature and water content of body fluids
- blood components help defend against disease and mend damage vessels
cardiovascular system
- gonads produce gametes that unite to form a new organism
- glands release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes
- associated organs transport and store gametes
reproductive system
- transfers O2 from inhaled air to blood and CO2 from blood to exhaled air
- helps regulate acid-base balance of body fluids
- air flowing out of lungs thru vocal cords produce sounds
respiratory system
- protects the body
- helps regulate body temperature
- eliminates some wastes
- helps make Vitamin D
- detects sensations - touch, pain, cold, warmth
integumentary system
- generates action potentials (impulses) to regulate body activities
- detects changes in internal/external environment, interprets, & responds by causing muscular contractions or gland secretions
nervous system
- supports and protects the body
- provides a surface area for muscle attachment
- aids body movement
- houses cells that produce blood
- stores minirals & lipids
skeletal system
- produces body movements
- stabilizes body position
- generates heat
muscular system
- regulates body activities by releasing chemical hormones which are chemical messengers transported in blood from gland to target organ
endocrine system
- touching body surfaces with the hands (e.g. enlarged liver).
- listening to body sounds, often with a stethoscope (e.g. wheezing in chest).
- examiner taps on the body’s surface and listens to the echo (e.g. fluid in chest).
- the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body.
- the ability to detect and react to external and internal changes.
- includes motion of whole body and its parts, down to structures within cells.
- increase in body size; due to increase in number and/or size of cells, or material found between cells.
- unspecialized cells called stem cells change to become more specialized.
- production of new cells or new individuals.
- the condition in which the body’s internal environment remains relatively constant, within normal limits.
fluid within cells
Intracellular fluid (ICF)
- fluid outside of cells
Extracellular fluid
- fluid in spaces between cells in a tissue.
Interstitial fluid (tissue fluid)
- fluid within blood vessels.
- fluid within lymphatic vessels.
- fluid in and around brain and spinal cord
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
- monitors conditions in the body, sends this information to a central control region and produces any needed response.
Feedback system
- monitors a controlled condition and sends information to the control center.
- receives the information about the status of a controlled condition and determines the correct course of action.
Control center
- receives information from the control center and produces a response.
- produces a response that reverses or counteracts the original stimulus. Tend to be systems that require frequent monitoring and adjustment.
Negative feedback system
- produces a response that enhances or intensifies the original stimulus (change).
Positive feedback system
- any abnormality of a structure or function, it can be quite general.
- a specific illness characterized by certain signs or symptoms.
- Science that deals with the why, when and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted.
- the science or skill of distinguishing between different disorders or diseases.
- subjective changes that are not apparent to the observer (e.g. abdominal pain)
- objective changes in a patient that can be observed and measured. (e.g. fever)
- is a standard position of the body that allows consistent anatomical references for the observer. In this position the subject (e.g. patient) stands erect with their feet flat on the floor and directed forward and the arms are placed at the sides with the palms turned forward.
Anatomical position
- body is lying anterior side down (face down).
Prone Position
- body is lying anterior side up (facing up).
Supine position
- toward the head or upper part of a structure.
- toward the lower part of a structure, or away from head.
- a structure is nearer to the front of the body.
Anterior (ventral)
- nearer to the back of the body.
Posterior (dorsal)
- nearer to the midline of the body.
Medial (median)
- toward the side, or farther from the midline.
- between two other structures.
- on the same side of the body.
- on opposite sides of the body.
- nearer to the point of attachment of a limb, nearer to the origin.
- farther from the point of attachment or the point of origin.
- toward or on the surface of the body.
- Away from the surface of the body.
- a vertical plane that divides the body, or an organ, into right and left sides.
Sagittal plane
- passes through the midline and cuts into equal halves.
Midsagittal plane
- does not pass through the midline and cuts body into unequal halves.
Parasagittal plane
- a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions.
Frontal (coronal) plane
(cross section) A horizontal plane that divides the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) planes
Transverse plane
- passes through body at an acute (and obtuse) angle to the other planes.
Oblique plane
- located near the back (posterior) surface of the body. It is lined by three membranes called the meninges.
Dorsal body cavity
- is located in the head and contains the brain.
Cranial cavity
- is in the backbone and contains the spinal cord.
Vertebral (spinal) canal
- located on the front (anterior) and contains the organs called viscera. It consists of:
Ventral body cavity
- occurs above the diaphragm and contains the heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea, and thymus.
Thoracic body cavity
-there are two of these and each surrounds a lung.
Pleural cavities
- is located in between the lungs and surrounds the heart.
Pericardial cavity
- is a broad mass of tissue extending between the lungs from the sternum to the vertebral column. It consists of the heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland, and large vessels.
- is located below the diaphragm and contains the organs of the abdominal and pelvic cavities.
Abdominopelvic cavity
- is the superior part of the abdominopelvic cavity and contains the stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine and most of the large intestine.
Abdominal cavity
- the inferior part of the abdominopelvic cavity and it contains the urinary bladder and internal reproductive organs, and part of large intestine. The kidneys, adrenal glands, and pancreas are behind the peritoneum and therefore are not considered to be within these cavities.
Pelvic cavity
- these consist of parietal membranes that line these cavities and visceral membranes that cover the organs (viscera) within them.
Ventral cavity membranes
- the serous membranes surrounding the lungs
- the serous membranes surrounding the heart.
- the serous membranes of the abdominopelvic cavity
is the space between the visceral and parietal peritoneum.
peritoneal cavity
- upper middle abdominal region.
- upper right abdominal.
Right hypochondriac
-upper left abdominal region
Left hypochondriac
- center abdominal region.
Umbilical region
- to the right of the center abdominal region.
Right lumbar
- to the left of the center abdominal region
Left lumbar
- lower middle abdominal region.
Hypogastric (pubic or suprapubic)
- lower right abdominal region.
Right Inguinal (iliac)
- lower left abdominal region
Left Inguinal (iliac)
Right Upper Quadrant
Left Upper Quadrant
Right Lower Quadrant.
Left Lower Quadrant
- Especially useful for observing bone or dense structures.
Radiography or X Ray
- Relatively safe and especially used to distinguish abnormal tissues (e.g. tumors, plaques in arteries, brain abnormalities) and to measure blood flow.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- gives better view of soft tissues and organs than radiography, can produce 3-D view.
Computed tomography (CT, formerly called CAT scan)
- Since it is safe, noninvasive, painless, and uses no dyes; it is typically used to view the fetus during pregnancy. Also to view structure and actions of organs, and blood flow in vessels.
Ultrasound scanning (Sonography)
-used to view metabolic activity in various organs.
Positron emission tomography (PET) and Radionuclide scanning
- visually examines (using lighted scope) inside of body organs or cavities.