Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/73

Click to flip

73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
- a group of cells that have a common embryonic origin and function together.
Tissue
- covers body surfaces and lines spaces and ducts it also forms glands.
Epithelial tissue
- protects and supports the body, binds organs together, stores energy reserves, or provides immunity.
Connective tissue (C.T.)
- produces movement and generates force.
Muscle tissue
- detects changes and helps coordinate body activities through action potentials
Nervous tissue
- forms a fluid-tight seal between cells.
Tight junction
- fastens cells to other cells or nearby materials by dense layers of protein called
Adherens junction
- permits electrical or chemical signals to go from cell to cell. Ions and small molecules
Gap junction
- are like adherens but have intermediate filaments that extend from one side of the cell
Desmosomes
- are like half a desmosome and are especially important in anchoring one type of
Hemidesmosomes
consists of closely packed cells arranged in continuous sheets, and are securely attached to each other.
- Cells have an apical (free) surface exposed to a space and a basal surface attached to a basement membrane.
- avascular (no blood vessels) but has a nerve supply.
- attached to an underlying C.T. by a noncellular basement membrane.
- has a high capacity for renewal.
- derived from all three types of germ tissues.
-has a wide diversity of functions (protection, secretion, digestion, absorption, respiration, excretion, and reproduction)
Epithelium
- one layer of cells.
Simple epithelium
- two or more layers.
Stratified
- one layer of a mixture of cell shapes so that it appears stratified.
Pseudostratified
- flat, thin cells.
Squamous
- height, length and width are all about the same.
Cuboidal
- much taller than wide, many are ciliated (short appendages).
Columnar
- cells change shape.
Transitional
- one or more cells that secrete(s) substances into ducts, blood, or onto a surface.
Gland
- secretions are passed through a duct to the lumen (cavity) of an organ or the skin surface (not into the blood) (e.g. sweat glands)
Exocrine glands
-secretions enter blood without passing through a duct. (E.g. thyroid gland)
Endocrine glands
- secretory vesicles release secretions by exocytosis.
Merocrine glands
- apical portion of cell pinches off and releases secretions.
Apocrine glands
- cell ruptures to release secretions
Holocrine glands
-is a very abundant and widely distributed tissue.
- distinguished by the presence of cells surrounded by a noncellular matrix.
- does not usually occur on a free surface.
- typically has a nerve supply and is highly vascular.
- matrix is usually secreted by that tissue’s cells.
- matrix determines that tissue’s qualities.
Connective Tissue (C.T.)
type of tissue
- are larger, flat cells with branching processes (fibers). These secrete matrix
Fibroblasts
- cells that produce matrix in cartilage.
Chondroblasts
- cells that produce matrix in bone.
Osteoblasts
- are cells that help fight foreign invaders.
Macrophages, plasma cells, mast cells
-cells that store triglycerides (fat)
Adipocytes
- along with fibers this makes up the matrix. It is the background material of C.T. and contains many different types of large molecules.
-supports cells, holds tissues together and provides a medium for exchange of chemicals between blood and cells.
- One component is hyaluronic acid, Esp. in areolar C.T.
Ground substance
-enzymes produced by white blood cells to break hyaluronic acid apart so that they can penetrate C.T.
hyaluronidase
-are very tough and resistant to pulling but give some flexibility since they are not pulled tight. They are straight and often occur as bundles.
Collagen Fibers
-provide strength but can be stretched considerably without breaking.
-They are branching
Elastic Fibers
-are relatively thin and branching, provide support and strength but do not stretch much
Reticular fibers
- is embryonic C.T. It gives rise to the other C.T.s.
Mesenchyme
- has a semifluid ground substance (hyaluronic acid). -gives a strong but elastic support to skin, mucous membranes, blood vessels, and body organs.
Areolar C.T
type of connective tissue
- contains cells (adipocytes) that store triglycerides in a large space.
- serves as an insulator and stores energy reserves.
Adipose Tissue
-has a network of interlacing fibers and forms the stroma (framework) of many organs
Reticular C.T.
- consists mainly of parallel collagen fiber bundles.
- forms tendons and ligaments, and resists pulling in one direction
Dense Regular C.T.
- contains collagen fibers that are randomly arranged.
- occurs in sheets where there is tension exerted in various directions.
Dense Irregular C.T
-consists mainly of freely branching elastic fibers and can stretch.
- occurs in lung tissue, arteries and respiratory tubes
Elastic C.T.
- consist of cells (chondrocytes) within spaces called lacunae surrounded by a rubbery ground substance.
- avascular so it heals slowly
Cartilage
- a membrane that surrounds most cartilage.
- can help repair damage
perichondrium
- consists of cells (osteocytes) in lacunae, surrounded by protein fibers and a hard ground substance composed mainly of calcium salts.
Bone (osseous) tissue
- consists of cells and cell fragments surrounded by a liquid matrix (plasma).
Blood (vascular) tissue
- consists of excess tissue fluid, drained from tissues and cells, in vessels.
- Also contains dietary lipids absorbed from intestines
Lymph
- a thin, flexible sheet of tissue that covers or line part of the body and is composed of epithelium and C.T. layers, or of C.T. only.
Membrane
Location:
- lines body cavities that open to the outside
Function:
- Serves as a barrier to entry of pathogens.
- Prevents desiccation
- Traps and removes particles in the respiratory pathway
- Provides lubrication in various tubes
- Secretes digestive enzymes and absorbs products of digestion.
Mucous Membrane (mucosa)
Location:
- lines body cavities that do not open to the outside and covers organs w/in these cavities.
Function:
- secretes a watery fluid that allows organs to glide over nearby structures reducing friction).
Serous Membrane (serosa)
Location:
- covers the surface of the body
Cutaneous Membrane (skin)
Location:
- lines cavities of freely movable joints. Is composed of discontinuous layer of synoviocytes and areolar C.T. (no epithelium).
Function:
- secrets fluid that lubricates and nourishes cartilage that covers bones
Synovial Membrane
Location: Usually attached to bones
Mode of control: Voluntary
Structure: Striated, parallel fibers, each with many nuclei located peripherally.
Skeletal muscle
Location: Wall of the heart
Mode of control: Involuntary
Structure: Striated, branching fibers each w/ 1or 2 nuclei located centrally. It also has intercalated disks where fibers attach end to end
Cardiac muscle
Location: Walls of organs, blood vessels, and airways to the lungs
Mode of control: Usually involuntary.
Structure: Unstriated, nonbranching, spindle-shaped fibers each w/ one centrally located nucleus.
Smooth muscle
Function:
- to detect stimuli (changes) and send information in the form of action potentials to other cells for processing or for a response.
Structure (3 basic parts):
- Cell body
- Dendrites
- Axons
Neurons
- these cells do not carry nerve impulses but they service the neurons
Neuroglia
- contains the nucleus and other organelles.
Cell body
- branched fibers that are the input part of that cell.
Dendrites
- a single fiber on each cell that carries its output to other cells (typically away from the
cell body).
Axons
- the ability of some cells to respond to certain stimuli (changes) by producing an electrical signal, often called an action potential.
Electrical excitability
- produced by neurons
-sends information along that cell to another cell.
nerve action potential
- produced by muscle cells (muscle fibers)
- stimulates the entire fiber to contract.
muscle action potential
- cells from the stroma (supporting C.T.) divide in repair
- scar tissue will form
Fibrosis
– may occur if cells from the parenchyma (functioning part) divide in repair,
tissue regeneration
- an actively growing region of C.T. in a wound.
-It can provide a framework for epithelial cells to migrate over and cover the wound.
Granulation tissue
-Tissues heal slower and leave more obvious scars in the aged.
- Changes in collagen and elastic fibers contribute to stiffening and loss of elasticity.
the effect of aging on tissues.
- is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks exocrine glands.
-Esp. attacks salivary glands and lacrimal (tear) glands.
- Symptoms include dryness of mucous membranes, eyes and mouth, and salivary gland enlargement.
Sjogren’s syndrome
- an inflammatory autoimmune disease of C.T.
- Signs and symptoms include painful joints, low grade fever, fatigue, mouth ulcers, Wt. loss, enlarged lymph nodes, rapid hair loss, anorexia, and “butterfly” rash across the nose.
- Causes include: A genetic component, viruses, bacteria, chemicals, drugs, excessive exposure to sunlight, stress, and sex hormones.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus, SLE)
the removal of a sample of living tissue for microscopic examination to help diagnose disease
biopsy
an immune response of the body directed at foreign proteins in a transplanted tissue or organ
tissue rejection
the replacement of a diseased or injured organ
tissue transplantation
trasplantation with the cells or tissues from animals
xenotransplantation