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41 Cards in this Set

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Germany

- is one of the great wine production in the world, this reputtion is based on Riesling and well balance between acidity and residual sweetnes.
- quality has never be higher and increasing on volume.
Wines.e Laws and Labeling Terms
- recognize specific regions and PDO and PGI wines can be made within them.
- also grades the wines according to the must weight of the grapes.
- Wines without geographical identification will be labeled "Deutscher Wein" (дојча вајн)
Geographical Clasification
- The German wine law requires that the vineyards is precisely delineated, there four sizes of delineation all of which can apear on the label, and they are:
*Anbaugebiet (анбаугабит) - designed for PDO regions, must apear on the label,
* Bereich (барраих) - is a district within an Anbaugebeit, there may be one or more within a region and cover extencive an geographical area. Word Brereich will be on label usualy after famous village.
* Einzellage (ајнцелаже) and Großlage/Grosslage (гррослаге) - Einzellage is an individual vineyard and Grosslage is a group of vineyards that often cover more than 1000 hectar. Only producers of PDO can put vineyard name (usualy village name) on label.
- best wine comes from Einzllagen
- producers are not required to say whether the named vineyard is Einzellage or Grosslage and this can lead to confusion for the customer.
PDO Wines
(g.U.) geschützte Ursprungsbezeichnung
* (g.U.) geschutzte Ursprungsbezeichnung (гешцта ушпррунсбецајхнум) is PDO on German
(QbA) - Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete
* Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete (квалитетцвајн бштмта анбаугебите) - QbA are wines that have to produce exclusively in one of thirteen Aunbaugebiete,
- blending wines with other regions is forbiden
- Region must be on label and something about style of the wine.
- this wines may undergo must enrichments
- minimum must weight is lower than those required for Pradikatswein
Prädikatswein
* Prädikatswein (предикатцвајн) - quality wines with special attributes.
- The grape must come from single Bereich
- this wines may not have their must enriched, though may be sweetened post fermentation using Süßreserve/Sussreserve (зусррезеррве)
- Pradikatswein and QbA both account 95% of production, only Pradikatswein vary depend of vintage from 30%-70%
- have six level of Pradikatswein and must be shown on the label where the wine belong
- Pradikat level depend of must weight, but not all regions can rich required must weight, nevertheless from consumers perspective can idicate the style of wine.
Kabinett
* Kabinett (каминет) - delicate Pradikatswein and often make ideal aperatifs.
- Riesing in this style will be light in body, high acidity and flavour of green apple and citrus fruit, often balanced with residual sugar (i that case alcohol content is 8-9 abv) or dryer style can rich 12% abv.
Spätlese
* Spätlese (шпетлезе) - late harvest wine
- Riesling in this style have more body than Kabinett, fruit flavours can be riper, green apple note will not be presented and have firmly citys fruits and hint of stonefruit. Dry or Sweeter than Kabinett and on each style will have more alcohol content than Kabinett.
Auslese
(Goldkapsel)
* Auslese (ауслиезе) - wines made from selected extra-ripe bunches of grapes.
- greatest range of styles for Riesling
- slightly richer, riper Spatlese in a dry or sweet style
- some sweet Auslesen have botrytis character which wine producers labeled as Goldkapsel (гојдкапсел)
- it is higest Pradikat category for dry wine
(BA) Beerenauslese
* Beerenauslese (берренауслезе) - indicate rare, expencive sweet wines that is made from selected extra-ripe grape bunches, idealy with flavours and acids, enhanced by effect of noble rot.
- some grape varieties are developed to rich required BA must weight but is very dificult to beat the complexity and refreshing of Riesling Beerenauslese.
Eiswein
* Eiswein (ајсвајн) - Icewine, made from grapes that left on vine to freeze under affect from cold weather (winter).
- requires temp. below -8C, so harvest often make at winter night
- if harvest will be in January vintage will be labeled in year when its grown.
- when the grapes is pressed frozen water remain in the press and must results with high concentration. Sugar content in must will be equivalent with BA wines but the grabes are usualy non affected under noble rot and result is sweet wine with fruit and varietal character high in acid.
(TBA) Trockenbeerenauslese

* Trockenbeerenauslese (тррокебирренауслезе) - is a sweet wine produced in a minute quantities from grapes fully affected by noble rot in the level to be shivered to tiny raisins.
- the wines rarely have more than 8% abv, leaving very high level of residual sugar which balanced with equally high level of acidity.
- Top-quality TBAs are most expencive world wines.

PGI Wines
(g.g.A.) geschutzte geografische Angabe
(g.g.A.) geschutzte geografische Angabe (гешуцте гиогррафише агабе) -is a German term for PGI wines
Landwein
Landwein (ландвајн) - is wine which can be Trocken/Dry (тррокн) or Halbtrocken/off-dry (хаилтррокн) and minimum must weight is higher than Deustcher Wein.
- very smal precentage of anual production
Deutscher Wein
- allows blending from acros Germany
- some inexpencive export wines fall in this group
Trocken and Halbtrocken
*Trocken = Dry
* Habtrocken = off-dry - recently producers avoid term halbtrocken and use *Feinherb (фајнхррб).
Classic
- is a dry PDO wines mith minimum alcohol content of 12% abv (11.5% abv in Mosel) and 15g/l of residual sugar
- They must be made from single: variety, vintage and region, all of which must be stated on label
Selection
- is dry PDO wines of Premium Quality,
-minimum must weight need to be at least on Auslese levels
- must come from Einzallage that will be named on label
- Yields is tightly controled than other PDO wines
- Wines are dry up to 9g/l residual sugar with exception of Riesling which maximum can be up to 12g/l
- this term is not widely used as Clasic, many of producers whose wines can qualify to Selection rules chose to apply to more prestigious VDP terms
Labeled Terminology Linked to VDP
VDP - Verband Deutscher Prädikatsweingüter
*VDP - Verband Deutscher Prädikatsweingüter (фабант дојча прредикатвајнгута) - is prestigious association of the self-elected best producers throughout Germany whose members obliged to maintain commitment to quality.
- part of this involves the VDPs very best vineyards in Germany.
- made have own terminology for sites and wines
- terms are not a part of national German wine law and can be used only by members of VDP
Erste Lage
*Erste Lage (еаррсте лаге) - These are the best vineyards sites of the VDP (Germany itself).
- This term or logo (bunch of grape with number one) apears on wines made from this vineyard.
- Grape varieties are limitet to Riesling, Silvaner, Grauburgunder, Weißburgunder and Spätburgunder
Grosses Gewächs
*Grosses Gewächs (грросес гевекс) - this term is lounched 2001 and refer only to dry wines from Erste Lage sites
- previous term was Erste Gewachs but its can be used also, because is added in wine law of Hessen
Climate and Weather
- cool continental climate, summers can be wet but rainfalls declined in autumn during the final stage of ripening,
- vineyards in south Baden is more warmer
- Long cool ripening period gives the grape time to develop good level of natural sugar while retaining their acidity and when is sufficient humidity allows to develop the noble rot.
- The best sites are plantet on steep stony slopes
Riesling
- most famous German variety, account fifth of all plantings.
- it is ripening late (Oct.-Nov.)
- Ideal for Spatlese (late harves) because of its high acidity
- The very best wine can be very long lived
- Not suitable for oak ageing
Müller-Thurgau (Rivaner)
Müller-Thurgau (мула трругау) Rivaner (рривана)
- crosing 1880 from Riesling and Madeleine Royale.
- ripens earlier than Riesling but have less acidity and flavour intensity
- when are yields are controlet it can produce attractive but simple floral and fruity wine.
- cannot produce premium wine
Silvaner
- on French Sylvanier
- most widely plantet
- Reinhessen and Franken
- early ripens in early October.
- fresh, moderate acidity, neutral fruit wines
Scheurebe
Scheurebe (шајррибе)
- crossing Sylvanier and Riesling
- Grapefruit aroma, aromatic grape
- sutable for sweet wines
Spätburgunder
Spätburgunder (шпитбургунда) - Pinot Noir
- third most planted grape variety in Germany
- warmer regions, Pfalz and Baden
Dornfelfder
Dornfelfder (доафелда)
- deep coloured red grape
- high yields
Portugieser
Trollinger
Schwarzriesling
Portugieser (португиза)
Trollinger (тролина)
Schwarzriesling (швацррислин) - Meunier
Vitivulture and Vinification
- steep slopes and flater land vineyards, first are produce better grape.
- Hand picking, transporting grapes with whinches on extrimely slopes
- individually staked or wire vine training
- highly cost of production
- now viticulture is more turned to producing easy to drink inexpencive wine from flat land vineyards mechanised harvesting ...
- seven selective pickings for the different quality levels of each vintage, spatlese, auslese, berenauslese, trockenbereauslese
*Chaptalisation ((чаптализацион) impruvment of must by adding of calcium bicarbonate to neutralised acid or of sugar to increase alcohol) is commonly used but is not permited to Pradikatswein.
- Kabinet, Spatlese and Auslese dry wines can sweetened by Sussreserve
- producing sweet wines by arresting the fermentation (usualy chiling the most to level when yeast become inactive than remove yeast by centrifuging the most) to retain more residual sugar in must and its so sweet that can't continue with fermentation anymore.
Mosel
Mosel (моозе)
- region cover valley of river Mosel and its tributary Saar and Ruwer
- white wines - Riesling
- famous villages Piesport and Bernkastel
- the best Einzellagen lie close to the river on very steep slope and south facing aspect.
- Best site midle Mosel
Nahe
Nahe (нае)
- Region between Mosel and Rheinhessen
- best vineyards on the bank of river Nahe,
- varied soil, slate, porphyry, quartz and coloured sandstones
- more ripen Riesling
- black grape Dornfelder
Rheingau
Rheingau (ррајнгау)
- small and prestigious region
- lie on two rivers Main and Rhine
- from extremely steeper to modesty slopes
- Geisenheim, world famous vine reseraching center
- 80% is dry wine styles
- considered that the best BA and TBA wines comes from hire
Rheinhessen
Rheinhessen (рраинхесен)
- largest region under vineyards
- broad range of white and red wines
- most widely planted is Muller-Thurgau and important plantings of Riesling, Silvaner and Grauburgunder
- black varieties Dornfelder, Portugieser and Spatburgunder make 30% of this region
- Rheinterrasse best vineyards, produced most full-bodied Riesling in Germany
Pfalz
Pfalz (фајлц)
- second largest regiun under vineyards, only for a few hectars smaller than Rheinhenssen.
- Region can be seen as extension of Alsace
- Haardt mountain is continuation of Vosges this means that Pfalz is driest region in Germany
- Red grapess account 40% of the vineyard area and Dornfelder are second wide planted variety
- Spatburgunder gain world reputation, also high quality is Grauburgunder and weise burgunder
- Most plantet variety is Riesling
Baden
Baden (баадн)
- Largest warmest region but on third place as region under vineyards and production in Germany
- This is only one region in Germany where red varieties are in majority, most of which is Spatburgunder
- Muller-Tughau remains widely planted folowed by Grauburguder and then Riesling
- Acros Alsace are extinct volcano Kaiserstuhi where are best sites under vine
- Highly demanded in the domestic market it is rare on exports markets.
Franken
Franken (фран'м)
- Muller-Tughau and Silvaner is most prestigious from this region
- Best wines are dry in style with richness on platte market earthy quality.
- Wine is bottled in flask-sharped bottles called *Bocksbeutel.
- Wines are most popular in Germany an is rare to find on export market.
Ahr
Ahr (ар)
- Northes small region
- known for its elegant Spatburgunder
Mittelrhein
Mittelrhein (митехрајн)
- Midle Rhein
- known for its light bodied Riesling
Württemberg
Wurttemberg (вуртемберг)
- large region on the south that produces large quantities of red wine for the German market.
Hessische Bergstrasse
Hessische Bergstrasse (хесишe беаргштрасе)
- small region, producing wine similar in style as Rheingau.