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87 Cards in this Set

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What are the four official levels?
Vin de Table
Vin de Pays
VDQS (vin delimite de Qualite Superieure
AOC (appellation d'origine controlee)
Who enforces wine laws?
INAO (institute national des appellations d'origine)
What conditions must the AOC wines meet?
- Must be 100% of the grapes from that area to label the wine that region
- must meet minimum sugar + alcohol levels
- must not exceed maximum harvest per hectare
- methods of production must be approved by region
- bottled in same region as appellation
- pass taste test of INAO
- reflect the wine of its region
What is terroir?
the physical environment in which the grapes were grown
- the unique and distinctive character a specifice wine will exhibit due to the area
what waters border bordeaux?
Atlantic ocean, gironde river, garonne river, and dordogne river
Is Bordeaux known for reds or whites?
Reds
What 5 areas is Bordeaux most known for?
Medoc, Graves, Ste Emilion, Pomerol, and Sauternes
Name the authorized red grapes in Bordeaux
Cabernet Sauvignon
Merlot
Cabernet Franc
- Malbec
- Carmenere
- Petit Verdot
Name the authorized white grapes in Bordeaux
Sauvignon Blanc
Semillon
Muscadelle
- Merlot Blanc
- Ondenc
- Mauzac
- Colombard
- Ugni Blanc (regional wines)
What is the dominant dry white grape in Bordeaux?
Sauv Blanc
What is the dominant sweet white grape in Bordeaux?
Semillon
What are the quality levels of Bordeaux
- Bordeaux (lowest level of AOC)
- Bordeaux + region
- Bordeaux + region + chateau
Medoc's classification dates:
1855; 1973
Name the 5 1st growth wines?
- Chateau Latour
- Chateau Haut Brion
- Chateau Lafite-Rothchild
- Chateau Mouton-Rothchild
- Chateau Margaux
What is Grande Cru Classe?
The classification system in Medoc for their most note-worthy quality wines.
Dominant grape in Medoc?
Cabernet Sauvignon
What are the 7 subappellations of Medoc?
Haut Medoc
- St. Estephe
- Pouillac
- Ste. Julien
- Margaux
- Listrac
- Moulis
Graves subappellations?
Pessac Leognan
What is the 1st growth Medoc in Graves?
Chateau Haut Brion
What types of grapes are from Pessac Leognan?
Sauvignon Blanc
What % must be the dominant grape in Pessac Leognan?
25%
Ste Emilion and Pomerol is located where?
East of the Gironde River
North of the Dordogne
Dominant Grapes in Ste Emilion and Pomerol?
Merlot; Cab Franc
When was Ste Emilion classified?
1954
What is Ste Emilion's classification system?
Premiere Grand Cru Classe (Class A)
Premiere Grand Cru Classe (Class B)
Grand Crus - 46 of them
- Ste. Emilion AOC
What are the popular "grand crus" in Ste Emilion
Chateau Cheval Blanc
Chateau Ausone
When was Pomerol classified?
it was never officially classified
What is the dominant grape in Pomerol?
Merlot
Secondary grape in Pomerol?
Cab Franc
What is the star of Pomerol?
Petrus: 4,000 cases - most expensive merlot based wine
What are the dominant grapes of Burgundy? What are the accepted grapes?
Pinot Noir and Chardonnay (+ aligote in cote challonaise and gamay in beaujolais)
What is a negociant-eleveurs
Negociants that age the wines that they purchase
what are some techniques to maximize color and tannin extraction?
- saignee (bleeding)
- fermenting with the stalks
- oak aging
- temperature
- filtering and fining?
What are the quality levels of Burgundy?
Regional
Village
Premier Cru
Grand Cru
What are the appellations of Burgundy?
Chablis
Cote de Nuit (Cote d'Or)
Cote de Beaune (Cote d'Or)
Cote Chalonnaise (Saone-et-Loire)
Maconnaise (Saone-et-Loire)
Beaujolais (Rhone)
What are the quality levels of Chablis?
Petite Chablis
Chablis
Premiere Cru
Grand Cru
How many grand crus are there in Chablis?
7
Dominant grape in Cote de Nuit?
Pinot Noir
Dominant grape in Cote de Beaune?
Chardonnay in southern part
Subappellations in Cote de Nuit
- Gevrey Chambertin
- Chambolle-Musigny
- Vogne-Romanee
- Nuit-St. George
Marsannay
Fixin
Vougeot
Flagey Echezeaux
Haute Cotes de Nuits
Cote de Nuits Villages
subappellations of Cote de Beaune
- Aloxe-Corton
- Beaune
- Pommard
- Meursault
- Puligny-Montrachet
- Chassagne-Montrachet
Volnay
supappellations of Chalonnaise
-Givry
- Montagny
- Rully
- Mercurey
subappellations of Maconnaise
- Macon Village
- Pouilly Fuisse
Dominant grape of Beaujolais?
gamay
quality level of beaujolais
beaujolais AOC
beaujolais superieur
Cru beaujolais (beaujolais villages)
What is Nouveau beaujolais?
first wines to be consumed by the vintages
What is carbonic maceration?
removing oxygen from fermentation and crushing the grapes with pressure. This makes the wine softer and fruitier
What is chaptalization?
adding sugar to bring up the alcohol level
What is the second largest wine region?
Cotes du Rhone
What is the mistral?
very powerful wine that can rip the leaves and vines
Quality levels in Rhone
Cotes du Rhone
Cotes du Rhone Villages
Communes
What are the accepted grape varieties in Cotes du Rhone
Red:
Syrah
Grenache
Mouvedre
Cinsault

White:
Viognier
Communes in Northern Rhone
Cote Rotie
Condrieu (viognier)
Crozes Hermitage
Hermitage
Dominant grape in northern rhone?
syrah
condrieu has what type of grape?
viognier
What is another name for Northern Rhone
Septentrionales
What is the dominant grape in southern Rhone?
there is no dominant red grape
Communes in Southern Rhone
Gigondas
Chateauneuf du Pape
Tavel
Muscat Beaumes de Venise
What is the climate of the Cote du Rhone
cooler area North (high acidity, low sugar)
warmer in the South
What is unique about Alsace?
The only AOC region in France to label via Grape name
What are the grape types in Alsace?
Riesling
Gewurztraminer
Pinot Gris
Muscat
What is eleve en futs?
oak aging
what is chaptalization
adding sugar to must to increase alcohol
what is vendange tardive?
wines develop sugars but don't ferment them making them sweeter (late harvest)
what is Selection de grains nobles?
wines made by grapes by the "noble rot" of botrytis
What is botyrtis?
a bacteria, moldy green gunk, that enhances the wine
Malolactic fermentation in Alsace
they want the harsh acidity so they avoid this style of fermentation.
Alsace is known for red or white?
white (about 95%)
What is unique about Loire?
it is the longest river in France (635 miles)
Loire: white or red grapes?
white
What are the accepted white varieties of Loire Valley
chenin blanc
sauvignon blanc
muscadet
chenin blanc is found where
central areas
sauv blanc is found where
eastern and upper areas
muscadet is found where
western area
T/F: Loire valley generally avoids malolactic and oak fermentation
True
What is flowering and how is this important to Loire Valley
when the buds start to show flowers. can be ruined from spring frost
- huge fans or watering of the vineyard prevent this from occuring
Approved red grape varieties in Loire Valley
Cab Franc
Gamay
Pinot Noir
What other type of wine is Loire Valley known for?
Sparkling wine
Regions of Loire Valley
- Nantes (Western Loire)
- Anjou- Saumur (central)
- Touraine (central)
- Upper Loire
Nantes dominant grape?
muscadet
Anjou-saumur communes
Savennieres
Saumur-Champigny
Where do the finest red wines in Loire come from?
Saumur-Champigny
Touraine is known as:
the garden of France
Touraine communes
Bourgueil
Chinon
Vouvray
Bourgueil and Chinon grapes:
cab franc and cab sauv
vouvray grape
chenin blanc
Upper Loire communes and grape type
Pouilly fume
Sancerre

--sauv blanc. Pouilly fume marketing term = fume blanc