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49 Cards in this Set

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What is sustained yield?

1. The steady state management of timber, wildlife, and many other natural resources,and is where consumption is matched by production.

2 components of sustained yield

1. Even aged management ( all trees in a stand are approximately the same age and size)




2. Uneven age management


· 5 benefits of forests


1. Clear cut – removal of all tress in an area (Fragmentation… Edge Effect)




2. Shelter wood cut – removal of all trees in an area except for a few large shade providing trees for developing seedlings.




3. Seed tree cut – removal of all trees in an area except for a few large seed providing trees (natural re-vegetation)




4. Single tree selection – specific types of trees are removed from the stand (trees having specific characteristics)




5. Group selection cut – small groups of trees in a stand are removed,to keep everything balanced. Too many group tree cuts in the same area can lead to clear cut.


· Difference between rotation time & cutting cycle

o Rotation time is the number of years between trees being cut & when it is replaced by another “harvestable” tree.




o Cutting cycle is the number of years between cuts on a particular area of forest


· 5 things considered prior to choosing a forest harvestingtechnique


1. Determine habitat needs


2. Inventory animals


3. Feeding habitats


4. Cover needs


5. Rotation time


· What a snag is and benefits


o Snags are standing deadwood or dying trees. Their benefits are they provide:


1. Dens


2. Nesting sites


3. Perching sites


4. Breeding sites for fungi, insects, etc


5. Allow for decomposition (natural resources are released)


· Relationship between snags, insectivores and disease control


o Snags are an essential component in insectivore spp. Insectivore spp (birds, bats) play a key role in suppressing insect outbreaks.


· Reasons you wouldn’t cut forest up to water’s edge


1. Erosion control


2. Source source of seed distribution


3. Aquatic perches


4. Cover


5. Water temperature control (shade)


6. Protection of habitat

· Fire sets back something which is?


o Fire ecologically sets back succession


Fire can be detrimental to wildlife:

Detriments


· Habitat destruction


· Stress


· Food source lost


· Causes dispersal and separation


Fire can be beneficial to wildlife:

Benefits


· Sets back succession


· New forage


· New nesting sites


· Seed release


· Disease control

· Primary goals of parks


Goal is to develop viewing and interfacing opportunities without disrupting the environment & behavior of the animals


· 5 things that confront park managers

o Vehicular traffic


o Trash


o Funding


o Recreation


o Overpopulation


· Essential ingredient to park

o Presence of natural habitat

· What is an exotic species

o An organism introduced intentionally or accidentally from its native range into an area where the organism did not previously occur.


· 3 reasons exotic species are intentionally introduced


o Aesthetics


o Economics


o Recreational

· Intentionally introduction suggests what?


o Failure to maintain native species.


· What should be considered before exotic intentional intro

o Disease/pathogens/parasites


o Hybridization


o Habitat modification


o Competition with native species


o Pests


o Displacement of natives


· What an accidental exotic intro is and problems associated with it


o Many accidental introductions of species involve boats, which travel between continents. For example, the black rat,which is native to South Asia, has been hitching rides in ship cellars since the first century, spreading initially to Europe and subsequently throughout the rest of the world during the Age of Discovery. Species have also been accidentally introduced through water discharged by cruise ships and tankers,stuck to travelers' clothes and shoes, or in imported wood and food.

· What non game animals are


o A species that might be threatened or endangered that is off limits to hunters.


· Difference between threatened and endangered species


o Threatened species are species that have been legally declared by government that they may become endangered.




o Endangered species are species that have been legally declared by government that they are facing extinction.


· Difference between consumptive and non-consumptive and whichgenerates most revenue


o Consumptive is removal & alteration of natural resources by humans through actions such as hunting, fishing, trapping, timbering, mining. >$300 million spent annually on consumptive waterfowl hunting.




o Non-consumptive is human use without removal or alteration of natural resources such as photograph, catch & release, whale watching,bird watching. >$500 million spent on non-consumptive bird watching.


· 5 roots species approach threshold of extinction

1. Natura lcauses


2. Hunting


3. Introduction of an exotic predator


4. Non-predator exotic


5. Habitat modification


· 5 features that make species more susceptible to endangerment


1. Highly specialized physical, biological, or physiological adaptions or genetic vulnerability


2. Limited number of offspring


3. Human intolerance


4. Large in size


5. Economic value


6. Narrow habitat


7. Limited distribution


· What triage approach to saving a species on verge of extinction is


o No hope


o Some hope


o Definite hope


· Difference between r-select and k-select species


o K- Selected Species They are populations of a roughly constant size whose members have low reproductive rates. The offspring produced require extensive postnatal care until they have sufficiently matured. They are very limited in resources therefore they are a very competitive species. Humans are examples of a k-selected species.




o R-Selected Species They are populations that experience rapid growth of the J-curve variety. The offspring produced are numerous, mature quite rapidly, and require very little postnatal care. Consequently, this population grows fast, reproduces quickly,and dies quickly. Bacteria are examples of r- selected species.

· 3 ways to classify soils


1. Clay


2. Sand


3. Silt

5 symptoms of desertification


1. Declining water table


2. Salinization of water & soil


3. Reduced surface water


4. Soil erosion


5. Degradation of native vegetation (limits distribution/abundance, destroys habitat)


· How tropical rainforests work in terms of myths


· The myth is that if such vegetation abundance is present then the soil supporting such must be nutrient rich.. which in turn could support cultivated crop production & grazing..yielding high revenues. This myth is not true though. Litter is the source of a rain forests nutrients, not the soil.


Rhino

· market hunted for suto horn


o Made of carton (like finger nails)


o Horn used in rituals, medicines, as aphrodisiac and status symbol


o Has symbiotic with ox pecker


o Poor eye site


o Ox pecker feeds on parricides on rhino and is protected on rhino & In turn the ox pecker alerts rhino when intruders approach


Coyotes

o Opportunistic adaptable species


o 50 lbs 25 inches tall 4 ft long


o Den dweller


o Social unit is the pack, going from alpha top of the pack to omega which is the bottom


o Alpha eats first and are ones to mate and can have liter up to 19 pups


· Pandas


o China


o 6 ft tall 350lbs


o Herbivore with k9 teeth


o 99%of diet is bamboo (specialist feeder)


o Practices delayed implantation


o Give sbirth to 2 usually only 1 survives


o Habitat destruction is their demises


Python


o 200lbs


o Solitary and dossal


o Swallows prey whole


o Teeth are pointed rearward


o Nonvenomous


o Constrictor


o Can lay 100 eggs in one clutch


o Demise is market hunted and habitat destruction


· Elephant


o Largest land mammal


o 14000pounds 13ft tall


o Exhibits prehensile lip on trunk for grasping


o Herbivore


o Life limited by warring out replacement teeth


o Matriarchal society


o Demise is market hunted


· Manatee/Sea Cow


o Dossal marine mammal


o Primarily herbivore


o AkaSea Cow


o Evolved from huffed land animals


o 1200 lbs 12ft long


o Narrow range of tolerance in terms of temperature (70 degrees)


o Impacted by water crafted strikes, red tide, fish nets


· Penguin


o Aquodic flightless avian


o Uses wings like flippers


o Rookery is social unit


o Reaches 90lbs 4ft tall


o Males use feet and pouch to incubate egg


o Climate change, habitat loss, over fishing is demise


· Polar Bears


o 5 ft tall


o Skin is black, has hallow hair for thermoregulation and light refraction through the hair makes it look white


o Female practices delayed implantation


o Climate change is demise


· Water Pollution


o Ponds, rivers, lakes


o Groundwater is water underground such as aquifers


o Water pollution is release of harmful chemicals and wastes into these waters (surface water or ground water)


o Water pollution can cause illnesses, deformities and damages to wildlife§ Example – sea turtles mistake plastic for jelly fish


o Significant environmental and wildlife impacts from oil spills.


· Komodo Dragon


o Indonesia


o Solitary inverse lizard


o 30eggs


o A Sexual & is sexual


o 60sharp serrated teeth---replaced like shark teeth


o Venomous bacteria saliva


o No sweat glands


o 10 ft long 366 lbs


· Koala


o Found in Australia


o Lethargic dweller


o Marsupials


o Joey enters pouch from rear


o Practice coprophagy


o Specialist feeder---feeds on eucalyptus leaves


· Platypus

o Carnivorous


o Mammal that lays eggs


o Ducklike beak


o Beaver like tail


o Has webbed feet


o Males have poisonous spurs on inside of hind legs


o Electro sensors in back allow ability to locate objects in deep and dark waters


· Microbeads

o 500-1000years to break down plastics in the ocean


o Tiny beads of plastic found in exfoliates and personal care products


o 800,000,000washed down the drain a day


o Takes high temperature and pressure to break down


o Combine with toxins in water and cause health effects


· Sloth


o Found in South America


o Lethargic ruminant


o Solitary


o Arboreal herbivore


o 4legs longer than body


o 21inches long and weigh 14 lbs


o Feed only at night


o Gestation period up to 10 months


· Liger


o Hybridized species


o Result from the mating of a male lion and female tiger


o 12 ft long


o 1,000lbs


o More susceptible to thinks like cancer


· Wolf


o Social unit is called the pack


o Hierarchy includes; alpha, beta, omega


o Only the alpha male and beta female mate—they also feed first


o 70lbs


o Re-introductory programs are known to be successful


· Dolphin


o Intelligentmarine mammal


o Uses echolocation


o Social unit is the pod


o Burst tail first to avoid drowning when born


o Orca is part of the Dolphin family


· Alligator


o Large carnivorous reptile


o Has unique full body armor with plates called scoots


o Head shaped like a shovel


o Habitat near aquatic systems


o Muscular tail


o Cooler the nest = female offspring


o Warmer the nest= male offspring


Exotic and acclimation

Failure to acclimate


- Hand reared species


- Don't know how to act and survive in the wild


- Human habituation

Explain one exotic species from class:



Brown Trout

Intentionally introduced