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144 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

early pre-history

- no need for wildlife management

first activities of wild life management


Dawn of agriculture

-created new interactions with species of wildlife

-plants and favored animals were given protection

- killed of species that threatened to hurt favored animals resulted in elimination of those species


what is the major source of habitat loss and why?


-people began to depend on agriculture for food


human movements of exotic animals

-people began migrating to different lands and brought animals to new environments

- domestic and cultivated species move form one habitat to a new one

- extinction of native species often resulted from placing new species into the environment

global explosion of exotics

-recently exotics have been undesirable


early wildlife management

-biblical readings of protecting certain animals

- greeks and Romans had laws restricting hunting animals

European approaches

-magna carta and enlgish "common law"

-henry VII made decrees regarding wildlife


North American history

- 1600-1849: era of abundance

- 1850-1899: era of exploitation

- 1900-1929: era of protection

- 1930-1964: era of management

1965- present: era of environmentalism

era of abundance

-wildlife resources seemed inexhaustible


era of exploitation

-near extinction of bison and passenger pigeon

- market hunting was huge and created huge declines in number of animals

-improved firearms


era of protection

-response to overexploitation was legal protection

- state game protection programs emerge


era of management

- emphasis on game species, but protection alone was not enough

- professionalism expands tremendously

- 1937: wildlife society formed

era of environmentalism

1964: wilderness act

- 1969: environmental policy act

- 1970: EPA formed

life spans eras of wildlife conservation

-era of exploitation

-era of management

-era of protection

life journey

- outdoorsmen and naturalist to forestry

- owned both public and private lands

Leopold's contributions to wildlife conservation

- wildlife conservation became science based

-first generation of modern professionals were trained

- holistic vision for the future of wildlife conservation was offered

passenger pigeon life history details

- 14 to 16 inches in length

- weighed between 9 to 12 oz.

Shrorger's legacy/records

-founder of Wisconsin Society for Ornithology, founder


-nested in huge colonies wherever they found an abundant mast crop

- only one egg in clutch

countdown to extinction

- every nesting attempt was ruthlessly pillaged

- birds were tracked and killed year round

end of the passenger pigeon

-hunting year-round continued unabated

lecture 2-2

conservation success

- rare, over-hunted species are becoming abundant

- non-game and endangered species receive protection

North American wildlife conservation

-concern of over slaughter of wildlife through unregulated market hunting

-rise of closely regulated sport hunting

7 components of North American Model

1. wildlife is a public trust resource

2. no COMMERCIAL harvesting of wildlife

3. democratic RULE OF LAW concerning wildlife

4. only LEGITIMATE uses of wildlife allowed

5. wildlife management as an INTERNATIONAL resource

6. wildlife policy and management are BASED ON SCIENCE

7. ACCESS to wildlife for all

21st century reality check

-private property rights

- public access to wildlife on private land

elimination of commercial exploitation

- Lacey Act (1900) and other laws restricted the sale of meat and parts of wildlife

-private game farms can still sell wildlife that have been raised in captivity

democratic process and rule of law

- democratic processes and public hearing keep the people's wildlife managed for the common good

- use of wildlife is regulated by public laws

- state and federal agencies enforce those laws

Legitimate purposes only

- wildlife can only be taken for food

- Code of the Sportsman, hunters use animals that they kill

internal dimensions of wildlife

- 1916 migratory Bird Treaty

- international treaties and agreements

science-based policy and management

-should be based on science rather than politics or non-factual beliefs

- professional wildlife management became a norm after the 1930s

public access to wildlife

all US and Canada citizens are able to use and enjoy wildlife for legitimate purposes

recent issues

- expansion of species that could be hunted ( ex. wolves.)

-restrictions on uses of the public lands because of impacts on wildlife



knowledge of wildlife

-most american are ignorant about wildlife,

- were most knowledgeable about domestic animals, pets, dangerous animals

- americans were LEAST knowledgeable about native predators, invertebrates

attitudes toward animals

1. neutralistic

2. aesthetic

3. humanistic

4. dominionistic

5. moralistic

6. scientistic

7. negative

8. ecologistic

9. utilitarian

10. naturalistic


- primary interest and affection is for wildlife and the outdoors

- gains satisfaction from direct contact with animals

- nature study, sport hunting


- interest in maintaining ecosystems

- focus on species, populations, habitats, more than just on individual animals

- concern for the environment



- primary interest for individual animals

- love for pets extended to all animals

- anthromorphism

-pet ownership


- primary concern for animal welfare and animal rights

- opposed to exploitation or cruelty of animals

- animal welfare/rights group member


- primary interest in for the practical use of animals

- food, hides, medicine, labors

- farmers, meat hunters, trappers


- interested in the mastery and control over animals

- emphasis on competition of animals

- trophy hunters, animals spectators,


- primary interest is in physical attributes and biological functioning of animals

- views animals as a source of acquiring knowledge

- scientific study, research


- interested in artistic and symbolic characteristics of animals

- enjoy animals as objects of beauty

- nature appreciation, wildlife art


-avoids animals out of fear, dislike, or indifference

- fear of animals, animal cruelty


-ambivalent towards animals

- not interested in learning about or interacting w/ animals

- avoidance of animals

characteristics of animals that are preferred more than others

- beautiful, intelligent, large, useful, economically valuable, not threatening, not predatory, graceful

opinions on wildlife issues vary widely

- in US. wildlife species are held as a public trust and managed by the government in ways that reflect "the public's" view


polar opposite attitudes

1. Moralistic - Utilitarian

2. negativistic- humanistic


Two arguments for managing wildlife

-UTILITARIAN arguments

- manage wildlife as means to help human beings achieve their ends

- ETHICAL arguments

- manage wildlife because its the right thing to do regardless of utility for us

utilitarian arguments stem from wildlife values

- GOODS: species recognized as tangible resources that human beings "consume"

- SERVICES: species that perform useful functions that benefit human beings

-INFORMATION: species that help human being gain knowledge and insight

- INSPIRATION: species that evoke wonder, awe and love from human beings

wild life as goods

-very small portion of the world's wild species are resources


wildlife provides ecological services

-decomposition, plant pollination, seed dispersal, pest control


wildlife as sources of information

-many discoveries that will improve human lives will come from studies of wildlife

- biotechnology

wildlife as inspiration

-attraction to wild species may be in our genes


Quantifying and Monetizing the value of wild life resources

- commodity values

- option values

-contingent values

- existence values

- bequestvalues

commodity values

what people are wiling to pay when there is market for species pay when there is a market for the species

option values

what people are wiling to pay to guarantee option of finding future use for species

contingent values

what people are willing to pay for the opportunity to use a species, even if they don't use it

existence values

what people are willing to pay to preserve a species, even if they never actually use it (or even see it)

bequest values

what people are wiling to pay to assure future generations have opportunity to use species

utilitarian cost-benefit dilemmas

-valuable species can lose out when costs of conserving it exceeds economic benefits of not conserving it

- only species with utilitarian value can be preserved

- have harmed many valuable species, so utility DOES NOT insure security

difficulty applying utilitarian argument to all wild species

- ignorance of all wild animals

- difficult to defend economically


ethical arguments

- do wild species also have intrinsic worth and right to exist ??

- removes burden of proving utility as a justification for conservation

-encompasses all species regardless of value to human beings

ethical arguments being quantified and monetized

- contradiction between not monetize intrinsic worth animals but humans monetize are able to do it for themselves


safe minimum standard

- argue that wild species should always be preserved unless costs of doing so are too high

wildlife and intrinsic worth

-unethical to harm or hurt wild species

-changes from economical issue to ethical one

- ethical motives for managing wildlife

1. anthropocentric

2. stewardship

3. biocentric

4. ecocentric


-only humans are worthy of ethical treatment

- only unethical if species loss negatively impacts human beings


- religious basis (take care of divine creation)

- human beings are "highest forms" of life and have to take care of other species because of it

- human needs come first because of higher position in nature


- appreciation for life

- human beings are equal to individuals of other species

- moral basis for animal rights movement


- human behavior should not threaten other species or habitats

- Aldo Leopold ( all species should be allowed to exist regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage

- support moral code of ethics


wildlife as a public trust

-identified wildlife as a public trust

- federal and state gov't have legal responsibility for managing public's wildlife

federal agencies

- Department of the Interior

- Department of Agriculture

- Department of Commerce

- Environmental Protection Agency

Department of the Interior

-US Fish and Wildlife Services

- US Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division

- Bureau of Indian Affairs

- National Fish and Wildlife foundation

US Fish and Wildlife Services

lead agency for management of birds, certain mammals, and fish - coordinates endangered species programs - negotiates international agreements

Bureau of Land Management

- manages habitat not species

- mostly in the west and Alaska

Bureau of Indian Affairs

- management of natural resources on trust lands held by native Americans

- assists tribal agencies that manage wildlife

National Fish and Wildlife Foundation

- raising money from non-gov't sources to match with federal funds

- initiated major wildlife programs

Department of Agriculture

-Animal and Health Inspection Services

- US forest service

- Natural Resources Conservation Service

Animal and Plant health inspection Service

- took over wildlife pest control- services and advice on dealing with wildlife pest species

US Forest Service

- administers national forests and national grasslands

- more importance than other federal and state agencies

- primary focus on multiple use with timber production

Natural Resources Conservation Service

- primary concern with soil and water conservation on private lands

Department of Commerce

-National Marine fisheries

- research and management of marine species

- includes marine mammals

Department of Defense (Protection )

- Army Corps of Engineers

-responsible for navigable waters, coastal wetlands, and other aquatic habitats

- manages important wildlife habitat

state wildlife agencies

- responsible for all wildlife species not managed by federal gov't

- directed by a board of citizens

- emphasis on game management

Wisconsin DNR

- research and Natural Heritage Program

- game management

- wildlife damage

- state legislatures influence on wildlife management and override professional decisions


Characteristics of populations

- dispersion

- population size and density

- immigration and emigration

- age structure

- life history stages


group of organisms of the same species in the same area at the same time


- all organisms of all species in the same area at the same time


all organisms in an area and their physical environment

Geographic ranges

- native

- endemic

- exotic

- invasive


- found naturally in a place (indigenous)


- found only in a particular place


brought to a place by human activities (non-native to environment )


an exotic species that has successfully invaded a native community

dispersion patterns


- uniform

- random

population size

number of individuals in a population

population density

number of individuals per unit area

dispersal movements

- one-way movements from one place to another, often from birth to breeding

- immigration: individuals moving into a population from some other population

- emigration: individ. leaving a population and moving to another population



- birth rate, number of births per individ. per unit time


death rate, number of deaths per individ. per unit time


proportion of individ. alive at one period that are still alove sometime later

age at first breeding

-mean age at which females first begin to produce young

- small animals breed earlier in life, larger animals breed later

physiological longevity

genetically fixed maximum age for species

ecological longevity

-age at which most animals in a wild population die under natural conditions

reproductive span

-period of animal's life span during which it is capable of reproducing

- positively correlated with longevity and body size

frequency of breeding

- many species breed annually, but some breed at shorter or longer intervals

- annual or less frequent closer to the poles

- smaller animals breed more frequently, larger animals less

age structure

- number of individ. in each age class in a population

- age classes vary in vulnerable to mortality

- relative number of older vs. younger individ. tells us whether population is increasing, stable. or decreasing

survivorship curves

Type 1

Type 2

Type 3

Type 1

-greates mortality risk occurs as old age

type 2

- mortality risk is constant throughout life

- typical of birds and some small mammals

Type 3

-greatest mortality rate occurs at a very young age

- typical of most fish and amphibians

continuum life history strategies

r-selected species

k-selected species


-High in natality, mortality

- early breeding

-short life span

- frequent breeding

- little parental care

- type 3 curve

- small body size


- low in natality and mortality

- late breeding

- long life span

- infrequent breeding

- type 1 curve

- much parental care

- large body size


rate of population growth (change)

A= geometric rate of growth

r= exponential rate of growth

decreasing population


r<0 (r is negative)

stable population



increasing population


r>0 (r is postive)

conditions allowing exponential growth

-only occurs when a population has an ideal set of conditions

-population has superabundant resources

- no predators, competitions, or diseases

examples of exponential growth

- introduced exotic species

- brief rapid growth when conditions are ideal

- pioneer species colonizing new habitats

- can't continue forever

density dependent factors

- competition

- disease and parasites

- predation

- dispersal

- stress

density-independent factors

-strong influence on population size

- random and unpredictable

- includes weather, natural disasters, human-caused accidents


spatial scale

- scale at which "the same place" is defined is imporant

- small to large

species richness

-number of species that are members of a community

species composition

types of species that are members of a community

relative abundance pattern

- percentage of all the individs. in a community that belong to a given species

community structure

- structured based on how the way the individ. species fit into the food chain

- primary producers (plants)

- primary consumers (herbivores)

-secondary consumer (carnivores)

- tertiary consumers ( top predators)

determining species richness

- species-area relationship is a powerful determinant of species richness

habitat loss

- reduction of the total amount of a habitat type, in a landscape

habitat fragmentation

subdivision of the remaining habitat into smaller, more isolated areas

types of species that are sensitive

- area sensitive species: reduced fitnesss in small patches of habitat

- isolation-sensitive: reduced fitness in isolated patches

- edge-sensitive: reduced fitness near ecological edges

process-sensitive: reduced fitness when an ecological process is disrupted by fragmentation

area sensitivity

- affects large, space-demanding organisms that live in low densities

- need a large area of habitat

isolation sensitivity

-affects species that have poor dispersal abilities across the matrix that separates patches

edge sensitivity

- affects species that have their fitness reduced in areas near ecological edges

-issues or negative interactions with other species

process sensitivity

- affects species that are dependent on some scale- dependent process that only operates in large patches


countering fragmentation

-minimize edge effects around remnant natural areas