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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
There are over _________ muscles in the body.
Muscles make up a major part of our _____________ portion.
Muscles make up over _________ of our body weight.
Define: VOLUNTARY muscle and give some examples.
any type of muscle function under some degree of conscious control (ie. controlled by the brain). (eg: locomotion, speech, chewing)
Define: INVOLUNTARY muscle and give some examples.
Any type of muscle which does not involve conscious control, but may be able to exert some control at times. (eg. breathing, digestion, urination)
What are the 4 functions of muscles?
movement; supporting and maintaining posture; producing body heat; help form many internal organs (eg. heart, uterus, large intestine)
What are the three types of muscle tissue?
skeletal/striated muscle tissue; smooth muscle tissue; cardiac muscle tissue
What are some features of skeletal/striated muscle tissue?
voluntary muscle; striated (striped) appearance; represents the flesh of the animal; attaches bones to the body and make motion possible
What are some features of smooth muscle tissue?
involuntary muscle; non-striated (no stripes); usually located around hollow organs (eg. stomach, intestines, urinary bladder, uterus); produce relatively slow contractions to allow conscious function of internal organs
What are some features of cardiac muscle tissue?
involuntary muscle; found ONLY in the heart (very specialized); it's function is for the involuntary contraction of the heart
What are the four principle properties that we highlight within a muscle?
1. contractibility; 2. irritability; 3. elasticity; 4. extensibility
What ability is determined by CONTRACTIBILITY?
the ability of a muscle to shorten its normal length (eg. bicep)
What is meant by IRRITABILITY in a muscle?
muscle must be able to respond to stimuli, this is a reflex action (eg. pain or burn)
What two abilities are determined by ELASTICITY?
the ability of a muscle to return to its normal state (slow process); the ability of a muscle to be pliable and flexible
What ability is determined by EXTENSIBILITY?
the ability of the muscle to stretch; it is variable (eg. skeletal muscle resists stretching, however smooth muscle has a greater extensibility - ie. bladder or uterus)
What is a TENDON?
strong, fibrous, white bands that attach muscle to bones; they enable movement of a part located at a distance from the contracting muscle
What is a LIGAMENT?
strong bands of fibrous tissue connecting bones to bones; they aid or restrict movement and support organs; eg: many dogs will tear their cruciate ligament (CL) (knee) while exercising; may present being lame, sore or non-weight bearing.
What is FASCIA?
a sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports and separates muscles
it means "white line" in Latin; very distinct tendon line that runs down the midline of the body; on the ventral abdominal wall; key landmark for abdominal incisions (eg. spay); indicates the centre of attachment of the abdominal muscles
What is the SCIATIC NERVE?
found on the lateral side of the hind leg parallel to the femur; important to note during IM injections - if never is damaged, can cause paralysis (permanent or temporary)
an injection given within the muscle (IM)
What is ATAXIA?
the inability of voluntary control of muscle movement; "wobbly"; appears drunk
an abnormal condition or disease of the muscle
What is a HERNIA?
protrusion of a body part through tissues that normally contain it
What is LAXITY?
looseness; not tight