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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
screening for dyslipidemia
9-11 and 17-21, high risk of cvd and men age>35,
screening for chlamydia
all sexually active women <24 years, new partner in past 2 months, multiple partners,illicit drug use, contact with sex workers , incarceration, history of sti
rx of entrobious vermicularis in pregnancy
pyrantel pamoate. in nonpregnant use albendazole
1st like anti-trypanosomal agent
1st line agent for strongyloides
the most common type of intracranial lesion in NM-1 and typically manifests during toddlerhood.
Optic pathwéy glioma
best initial screening test for NM-2?
diagnostic test for malrotation with volvulus in children
An upper gastrointestinal (GI) contrast series is the best initial examination to visualize the duodenum and assess for malrotation and midgut volvulus in children
goal bp in acute ischemic stroke if not recieved thrombolytic therapy?
For patients with acute ischemic stroke who are not treated with thrombolytic therapy, we suggest treating high blood pressure only if the hypertension is extreme (systolic blood pressure >220 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure >120 mmHg), or if the patient has another clear indication (active ischemic coronary disease, heart failure, aortic dissection, hypertensive encephalopathy, acute renal failure, or pre-eclampsia/eclampsia) When treatment is indicated, we suggest cautious lowering of blood pressure by approximately 15 percent during the first 24 hours after stroke onset
goal bp in ischemic stroke if recieved thrombolytics?
For patients with acute ischemic stroke who will receive thrombolytic therapy, antihypertensive treatment is recommended so that systolic blood pressure is ≤185 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure is ≤110 mmHg

treat with labetalol or nicardipine

lab to differentiate between hereditary vs acquired angioedema
c1q - normal in hereditary type. depressed in acquirred. c4 levels low in all types.
stridor in baby that worsen in supine position and improves in prone??
laryngomalacia. improves in prone position or when infant held upright.

voiding cystourethrogram indications

1. if hydronephrosis or scarring is seen in renal ultrasound.

2. It is also indicated in newborns age <1 month 3. children age <2 years with recurrent UTls or a first UTl from an organism other than Escherichia coli.

alopecia areata vs tinea capitis??
scaling only in tina capitis. Patients usually develop an initial asymptomatic, scaly, erythematous patch on the scalp that can progress to patchy alopecia with a residual black dot. Other findings can include inflammation, painful occipital or postauricular lymphadenopathy, and scarring.

how to confirm lyme arthritis?

The diagnosis of Lyme arthritis should be confirmed with serum ELISA and Western blot testing- Oral doxycycline or amoxicillin are the first-line treatments for Lyme arthritis in the absence of other manifestations of Lyme disease-

finding that differentiates acute otitis media from otitis media with effusion??

bulging of tympanic membrane in acute otitis media.

indication of myringotomy with tympanic tube placement?
recurrent acute otitis media >3 time in 6 months or >4 times in 1 year despite ntibiotic therapy
difference btw strep pharyngitis and inf.mono
inf mono has posterior or diffuse cervical lymphadenopathy .
difference between apthous stomatitis and herpes gingivostomatitis
fever only in herpetic gingivstomatitis
hisotry of uncorrected congenital malformations of git are contraindication to rota virus vaccine . T/F
confirmatory syphilis tests
fta-abs and tppa
3 differences between meconium aspiration and resp distress syndrome newborn
meconium aspiration occurs in term or post term infants with amniotic fluid stained with meconium. pathy infiltrates and flattening of diagphragm on xray.

Respiratory distress syndrome should be suspected when a premature infant presents with grunting, flaring, and retractions immediately after birth- Chest—x ray includes characteristic fine reticular granularity of the lungs. Treatment includes early continuous positive air pressure ventilation.

osteogenesis imperfecta inheritance and gene??

autosomal dominant COL1A1

ewing sarcoma metastasizes. yes or no?

yes. early metastasis to lymph nodes and lung

3 features of chondrosarcoma?

It occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life. People with disorders like multiple enchondromas and hemangiomas are at a higher risk than the general population.

X—ray typically reveals a fusiform defect with scalloping.

WHATTTT is a vascular benign tumor characterized by the triad of severe intermittent pain, tenderness, and sensitivity to touch. The most common site is subungual in 70% of the cases; the other sites are the palm and wrist- These are usually found in the fourth decade, and affect females more than males.

glomus tumor

murmur in TOF is due to??

pulm stenotis. vsd is usually large so doesnt produce murmur

patient with cyanosis, single s2, systolic murmur at left sternal border, cardiomegaly and increased pulm blood flow on xray . diagnosis?

TGA(murmur here is from a possible associated vsd) , because of increased flow to lungs. TOF causes decreased bloof flow to lungs.

hypoplastic left heart VS TOF?

both have single s2 , cyanosis, increase heart size. but usually there is no murmur in HLHS

reye syndrome liver biopsy shows??

mIcrovesicular steatosis

empiric antibiotic therapy for septic arthritis in child <3months?

Birth to 3 months Organisms - Staphylococcus, group B streptococcus & Gram-negative bacilli - Antibiotics - Antistaphylococcal agent (nafcillin or vancomycin) PLUS gentamicin or cefotaxime

septic arthriti in children oldren than 3 months Rx??

Older than 3 months Organisms - Staphylococcus, group A streptococci & Streptococcus pneumoniae - Antibiotics - Nafcillin, clindamycin, cefazolin, or vancomycin

septic arthritis patient, tell the step wise approach??

arthrocentesis then blood and synovial cultures then empiric antibiotics. if doesnt improve after 48 hours of antibiotics rx then do MRI to rule out concomitant osteomylitis

in osteosarcoma, contitutional symptoms eg fever are usually absent. T or F ?

true. Constitutional symptoms such as fever, weight loss, and malaise are usually absent- On physical examination, the most important finding is a tender sottissue mass. Alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase are elevated from turnover of damaged osteocytes; high levels may correlate with adverse prognosis. Increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate is a non-specic marker of inflammation- Treatment includes tumor excision and chemotherapy.

anterior knee pain and point tenderness at inferior pole of paella. diagnosis?

patellar tendonitis. in osgood schlatter tenderness is at tibial tubercle.

indications of PCV13(conjugate vaccine)

all children<5 years

all aduls>65

all patients <65 but with VERY high risk i.e sickle cell, immunocompromized, csf leak, asplenia, cochlear implant

9 year old child with nephrotic syndrome features. next step?

steroids. children <10 years do not require biopsy as the minimal change disease is high likely. Therefore, biopsy is reserved for steroid-resistant or progressive disease. Older children or adolescents should undergo renal biopsy to exclude other causes of nephrotic syndrome.

mesangial hypercellularity in ?

membranoproliferative gn

crescent formation in which gn?

focal segmental gn

ADPKD is usually asymptomatic in childhood.

true. dominant presents in adulthood.

initial drug of choice for partial seizures?


first abnormality on peripheral blood smear in iron deficiency is??

Anisocytosis (red blood cells of unequal size) is often the rst nding on peripheral smear, and the increased red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a quantication of this abnormality.

how to recognize left axis deviation on ecg?

both I and aVF +ve = normal axis

Left Axis Deviation: leads I and aVL are positive; leads II and aVF are negative

Rx of impetigo??

Topical antibiotics(eg, mupirocin) for nonbullous

Oral antibiotics (eg, cephalexin, dicloxacillin, or clindamycin for bullous impetigo

staph causes both bullous impetigo and SSSS?? but whats the difference??

painless, no systemic signs and nikolskys sign -ve in bullous impetigo. opposite findings in ssss.

child with clubbing and barrel chest. diagnosis?

cystic fibrosis. Hyperination of the lungs causes the rib cage to remain partially expanded, giving the appearance of a "barrel chest." Chronic hypoxia causes bulbous enlargement of the tips of the digits (clubbing)

babies with biliary atresia present at ..... age??

jaundice and acholic stools by 2 months of age.

delayed passage of meconium is considered delayed when???

after 48 hours

in a child with epilepsy when shud the antiepileptic drugs be stopped?

stopping with tapering of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy should be considered in most children after two years without seizures regardless of the etiology of the seizures.

absence seizure first time in a child. will u do brain imaging or not??

Patients who have clearly defined epileptic syndromes, such as petit mal epilepsy do not necessarily require neuroimaging.

3 findings of sever dehydration in children

sunken eyes, sunken fontanelle, capillary refill >3 seconds

henz bodies stain on ??

crystal violet. remember violet henz ketchup.

wright stain used for howel jolly bodies

retinoblastoma ct findings?

diagnosis is suspected with US or CT findings of mass with calcifications

_____month-old child should have a vocabulary of about 150-300 words and be able to combine words into short sentences.

24 months/ 2 years

3 findings of fetal alcohol syndrome

1. Small palpebral ssures 2. Smooth philtrum (vertical groove above the upper lip) 3. Thin vermilion border

vitamin deficiency causing sebhoreic dermatitis


nutritional cause of hepatomegaly, alopecia, fissuring of mouth, pruritis, irritability

hypervitaminosis A

Vin gierkes disease enzyme??

Glucose 6 phosphatase deficiency.

Which glycogen storage disease presents like floppy baby??

Acid maltase deficiency. Pompes disease

Duchen 💪 dystropy inheritance??

X linked recenssive DELETION of dystrophin gene on p21

hammer toes in??

friedrich ataxia

friedrich ataxia inheritance??

autosomal receesive. Friedreich ataxia is the most common type of spinocerebeliar ataxias. Remember the combination of neurologic (ataxia, dysarthria), skeletal (scoliosis, feet deformities) and cardiac (concentric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) manifestations of the disease- The most common causes of death are cardiomyopathy and respiratory complications.

why loss of coginitive fucntions can occur in meningitis

loss of cognitive functions (due to the neuronal loss in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus)

precocious puberty + cafe aulait spots=???

Remember the 3 P's of McCune-Albright syndrome: precocious puberty, pigmentation (cafe au lait spots) and polyostotic brous dysplasia.

precocious puberty + GI polyps

putz jegherz . also has mucocutaneous pigmentation

port wine stain over trigerminal nerve teritory

sturge weber

only lllife saving rx in cystic fibrosis?

bilateral lung transplant

leukocyte adhesion deficiency is due to deficienct expression of???


dihydrorhodamine test for??

chronic granulomatous disease

first step in choanal atresia??

oral airway and gavage feeding

elbow pain is felt with passive wrist exion and resisted wrist extension in __________

tennis elbow(lateral epicondilitis)

lactose intolerance Rx?

Patients should be advised to not eliminate dietary lactose but restrict their intake of lactose to two cups of milk (or its lactose equivalent) daily, taken in divided doses with two meals.

lactose intolerance confirm by??

hydrogen breath test

rx of Cow's milk allergy

complete avoidance of milk protein

atlantoaxial instability defect??

due to excessive laxity in the posterior transverse ligament, which causes increased mobility between the atlas (C1) and the axis (C2).

behavioral changes, torticollis, urinary incontinence, and vertebrobasilar symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, and diplopia. On examination, upper motor neuron symptoms such as leg spasticity, hyperreflexia, a positive Babinski sign, and clonus are often present. Patients with Down syndrome are normally hypotonic, and they may remain hypotonic or have increased tone with symptomatic atlantoaxial instability.

brutons agama... affects boys only?

yep . its xlinked recessive

transient hypogammagloubulinemia ig levels?

IgG low. IgA normal. IgM variable

Rx of scarlet fever?

treatment is Penicillin V (drug of choice). Erythromycin, clindamycin, and first generation cephalosporins are good alternatives for patients who are allergic to penicillin.