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215 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

type of mutation in CF

frameshift mutation

what is cross sectional study?

study of prevalence

measure exposure and outcome

using surveys

what is the connection between osteocytes?

gap junctions

IgG against hep C cannot confer effective immunity...Y?

due to structural antigenic variety of envelope protein.

how to distinguish bet schizoid and avoidant personality D?

schizoid dont care if people accepts them.

avoidant: care

positive trendleneberg post hip surgery..which nerve is affected?

superior gluteal nerve injury.

SGN innervates glut medius aand minimus and TFL

what is a + trendelenberg sign?

upon standing...sag contra

upon walk... sag ipsi

which type of hypersensitivity reaction is MG? give other example


exp. goodpasture syndrome: antibodies bind to IgG and IgM forming immune complex activating autoimmune against type 4 collagen 3alfa chain

contact dermatitis and sarcoidosis .. which type of hypersensitivity reaction?


which type of insulin should not be given SC in DKA ( given IV) and Why?

its action lasts for 8 hrs

Regular insulin

risk of dehydration

list the duration of insulin meds?

shorter to longer

lispro/aspart, regular, NPH, detemir, glargine


hypochromic megaloblastic anemia+ mental retardation+ growth retrdation+ orotic acid in urine

orotic aciduria

deficiency of orotate phosphribosyl transferace

what should be normal in ARDS? and when that parameter would be elevated?


it will be high in cariogenic pulmonary oedema.

what is case control study? what is the most common bias?

study of the disease and controls without caring about exposure to risk.

selection bias.

what are normal aging of the heart?

decrease base to apex dimension

perinuclear brown pigments lipofuscin

sigmoid septum

decrease LV cavity

HOCM changes

increase septum to wall thickness

disorganized myocyte bundles

myofiber disarray

what are CMV related fetal changes ?




sensorineural deafness



what are other eye infection in utero

rubella = cataract

inclusion conjunctivitis= c. trachomatis

what are host cell receptor/ vision vision protein binding specificity?



parvovirus B19

CD4 and HIV p120 that activates gp41

CD 21 and EBV gp350

erythrocyte P antigen and parvovirus B19

list three causes of S3?

rapid filling in high compliant LV

slow filling in low compliant LV

high ESV with blood flow in already filled ventricle= in LVSF

what is abacavir ( NRTI) HSR?

it is type 4 HSR with positive HLA - B 57*: 01 molecule resulting in rash, GI upset and fever

describe IgA?

two monomers, J protein and secretory piece

list insulin receptors and their effects?

- Muscurinic M3 = Gq= increase insulin

- Glucagon= Gs/Gq= increase insulin

- B2- GLP1= Gs= increase insulin

- Alfa 2 = Gi= inhibitory

- somatostatin= Gi= inhibitory

what is A-a gradient?

PAo2- Pao2

PAo2 = 150- (PaCo2/0.8)

A-a should not exceed 10-15. if exceeded: interstitial vs alveolar hypoventilation vs V/Q mismatch

list Sx of lysch nyhan syndrome?

HGPRT deficency

H : hyperuricemia

G : gout

P : pissed off: self mutilation, chorioathetosis

R: retardation

T: dystonia

list type of collagen, location and associated disease:





- 1: in bone and tendon: osteogenesis imperfecta (AD)

- 2 in cartilage and nucleus pulposus

- 3: skin and granulation tissue and BM: EH syndrome

- 4: in basement membrane: in alport syndrome

what is type II error?

fail to reject null hypothesis when it is truly false

= 1- B

what is type 1 error?

reject null hypothesis when it is true


most common organism in prosthetic valve and VP shunt is....


by producing extracellular polysaccharide biofilm

DDX of polyhydraminos:


gastric: atresia

cardiac: fetomaternal Hrge

B19 infection

DDX of oligohydraminous

renal: agenesis, post urethral valve

pulmonary: hypoplasia

list the functions of thalamic nuclei

VM: satiety centre.. affected in craniopharyngioma

Lateral: hunger centre

Ant: temp

Supraoptic and paraventricular: circadian rhythm and light

suprachiasmatic: ADH and oxytocin

if the patient feels spectacular. what is the dx?

acute mania.

Tx: lithium, valporate, carbamezapine.

how to prevent cardiotoxicity ( DCM) with doxrubicin?


what is permissiveness

one drug allows the other to exert maximal effects.

treatment of 21-hydroxylase deficiency is ....

ACTH supplement

what is the dominant effects of hypothalamus on prolactin?


Silicosis increase the risk of TB by...

impair macrophage killing

ACEI reduce GFR by....


low frequency detected at the.........

high frequency is detected at..........

apex of cochlea=helicotrema

base of cochlea= oval & round window

features of fragile X

mental retardation


long face

prominent forehead, chin, ears


tooth crowding

arched palate

genetics of fragile X syndrome is........

hypermethyltion of FMR 1 gene

examples of syndromes due to chromosomal breakage....

fanconi syndrome

ataxia telangactasia


xeroderma pigmentosum

examples in DNA mismatch repair include

lynch syndrome increasing risk of HNPCC

what is relative risk

(a/(a+b)) / ( c/(c+d))

what is OR


Norepi works by vasoconstriction of

the NE antidote is

alfa 1

alfa 1 receptor blocker= phentolamine

acute rheumatic fever is associated with .... bodies


burkitt lymphoma


associated with EBV

high K-67 fraction

starry sky appearance

gait instability+ eczema+ must odor urine =


mutation in phenyalanine hydroxylase

4 findings in TOF



- overriding of aorta

- RVOT obstruction/ pulmonary atresia

what is the embryo event in TOF?

ant and cephalhead deviation of infundibular septum

squat in TOF helps in

increase PVR = afterload

what is ATTACK rate

number of people who got the disease/ no of people who were at risk

old man with h/o COPD has fever, confusion, low PR, water diarrhoea, hyponatremia and gram stain shows neutrophils but NO bacteria

legionella pneumonia

holosystolic murmur more with inspiration=

tricuspid regurgitation

which artery is affected in pterion # or epidural hematoma ( lens shape)

middle meningeal A

what type of toxin in C. tetani?

what are the Sx?

extotoxin metalloproteinase

increased reflexes

hypertrophy vs hyperplasia

hypertrophy: increase in size

hyperplasia: increase in number

firs generation antipsychotics. name two types and side effects?

low potency: anticholinergic SE and sedatives: chlorpromazine and thioridazone

high potency : neurological SE and muscle rigidity :flufenazine and haloperidol


- verapamil and diltiazem?

- nifedipine and amlodipine?

- cardiac specific to slow AV node

- vasodilators

metoprolol is a

nonspecific B blocker . more B1> B2

eosinophils play a role in host defence against parasitic infection by............

1. antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity

2. production of IL-5

high osmo

low ICF

low ECF


DI= profuse sweating

low ECF

normal ICF

normal osmo

acute GI bleed

low osmo

low ECF

high ICF

adrenal insufficiency opposite to hypertonic NaCl infusion

high osmo

high ECF

low ICF

hypertonic saline infusion

low osmo

high ICF

high ECF

primary polydipsia

HIV patient with fever

intracellular oval bodies stain + in Sabouraud stain

histoplasma capsulatum

cerebllar taxia+ telangectasia+ sinupulmonary infection =

ataxia telangectasia

AR from mutation of ATM gene that is responsible for DNA break repairs


pyrophosphate analog

used in HIV + if the have gancyclovir resistant CMV or acyclovir resistant herpes


nucleoside analog

activated by thymidine kinase

inhibit DNA polymerase of herpes



needs to be phosphorylated

inhibit HIV reverse transcriptase



what are Sx of organophosphate poisoning?

how to reverse that?


diarrhoea, urination, miosis, bradycardia, bronchospasm, lacrimation, emesis ,salivation

reversed by atropine ( risk of muscle paralysis) and pralidoxime

anterior shoulder dislocation happens when ar in ...... position

results in .. nerve injury

abduction + external rotation

axillary nerve

mom has probability of carrying a gene is 1/30

dad has 1/100


probability that a child will carry the disease is....

(1/2 x 1/130) x (1/2 x 1/100)

G+ rods with tumbling motility=

listeria. grows in unpasteurized milk

drug blocks IIb/IIIa receptor= gland man syndrome


zidovudine + gancyclovir = S.E of ......

bone marrow suppression

early adenoma to late adenoma requires


late adenoma to carcinoma requires activation of

p53 and DCC

AR crigler najjar syndrome is lack of indirect bilirubin conjugation due to lack of..

UGT enzyme

AR recessive results in black earlobe and sclera, arthritis of shoulder and hip, black urine=


1g protein = cal

1g CHO= cal

1g ETOH= cal

1g fat= cal





drugs can cause hepatic granulomatosis




post op elevated LFT

halothane induced hepatotoxicity

features of tay-sacks D

developmental regression

cherry red spot in macula

accumulation of GM3

startle with voices

most common G-ve bacilli seen in intrabdominal abscess is.....


list Ddx of metabolic alkalosis

low Chloride: diuretic use, N/V, gastric aspiration ( saline responsive) , can be eu/hypovolemic.

high chloride: 1 hperaldosteronism, bushings, ectopic ACTH, barter and gitelman syndrome ( saline unresponsive), hypervolemic


what is the RPF EQUATION?


constriction of efferent arteriole increase GFR & RPF initially, as the constriction is severe, both decrease

PTH increase serum calcium by 3 mechanisms:

- increase osteoclast activity

- increase renal absorption of calcium

- increase formation of 1,25 OHD

drug used to treat ETOH craving is.......

drug used to maintain abstinence is........



most common cofactor in transamination ( btw amino acid and alfa-ketoacid) as well as decarboxylation is ........


most common cofactor of carboxylation is .....


pyruvate carboxylase

acetyl CoA carboxylase

propionyl Co A carboxylase

3MC CoA carboxylase

determine half life

volume of distribution x 0.7 / clearance

achieved in 4-5 half lives

maintenance dose

steady state plasma conc x clearance / bioavailability

in IV : bioavailability =1

loading dose

volume of distribution x steady state plasma conc/ bioavailability fraction

loading dose in renal/liver failure is the same but maintenance dose is decreased

how can valproate produce teratogenicity?

meningocele. by inhibiting folic acid absorption

ahminoglycosides works by....

inhibiting mRNA reading by binding to 30S subunit

what are signs of marijuana intoxication?

conjunctival injection


dry mouth

increase appetite

treat BPH BY........

alfa-1 blocker that decrease PVR

mefipristone works ............

progestrone antagonist

glucose is transported by ......

carrier protein + no energy = facilitated diffusion

amino acids safely given to pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency patients are...

lysine and leucine

asthmaitic or CF patients has infection with increase eosinophils , IgE and IgG , most likely infection of ....


young male+ arthritis+ conjunctivitis+ urethritis+ sacroilitis+ HLA-B27 =

reactive arthritis/ seronegative spondyloarthropathy

kid+ rash from haed to toe+ postauricular LN =

rubella / togavirus




- exposure is associated with increase risk of disease

- exposure is NOT associated with risk of disease

- exposure is associated with decrease risk of disease

if null value ( RR=1) is not within CI, p value is....

< 0.05 for 95%


< 0.01 for 99%

c.tetani exert its toxic effects through.....

the toxic substance travels from wound to..... to....


motor neuron, spinal cord

the the organism remains in the wounded area

pathogen travels from wound to spinal cord to brain to salivary gland =


CN 3 lesion involves

eye deviated down and out

diagonal diplopia


dilation of pupil and loss of accommodation

CN 3 externally rotate and elevate, adducts

CV 4 lesion involves

eye is upward

vertical diplopia

CN 4 abduct, depress and int rotate the eye

CV 6 lesion involves

eye deviate medially

horizontal diplopia

CN 6 abducts the eye

EHEC and shigella inhibit protein synthesis by...

inactivate protein S60 subunit

complication: HUS

they are unable to ferment sorbitol and can not produce glucoronidase

drugs that decrease warfarin effects are





water reabsorbtion in kidneys occurs mainly in....

proximal tubule

the immune mechanism against giardiasis is ....

CD4+ helper and secretory IgA production

most common causes of giardiasis in childhood is.......

IgA deficiency


X-linked agammaglobenimeia

coronary steal syndrome can be worsened by two types of medications?

dipyridamole and adenosine

mitral stenosis can cause ....... in PCWP


increase pulmonary HTN

niacin B3/ makes NAD+

deficiency can cause......

synthesized in the body by..

pellagra: diarrhoea, dementia, dermatitis


4 reasons the drug has low Vd

- hydrophilic

- charged

- high molecular weight

- high plasma protein binding

treat TCA toxicity by.....

administering bicarbonate

acetaminophen toxicity in treated with .....


increase glucoronidation and sulfation

GVHD is ........

donor T cells against MHC of recipient

snRNP is synthesized by

RNA polymerase II

cerebllar hemangioblastomas + cysts in liver/kidney/pancreas + AD =

VHL disease

fat emboli : you see black fat drops in

osmium tetroxide

G -ve coccobacili grows in hematin and NAD+ in chocolate agar

pathogenesis via capsular polysacchride

H. influenza

what is spikes protocol in delivering bad news?

s: set the stage

p: perception

I: invite

k: knowledge

E: empathy

s: summary and strategy

where is CTZ?

dorsal medulla at the caudal end of 4th ventricle

major factor in determining coronary flow is.........

DT : diastolic time

when would B-HCG detected in

- blood

- urine

day 8

day 14

lipo-oligo-sachhride of N.meningitis is =

LPS of G-ve rods

dystrophic calcification has two steps

1. cell necrosis

2. calcium deposits with normocalcemia

lung volume/ flow curve

obstructive : left

restrictive : right

tracheal stenosis: mid but all is low

fever+ hemolytic anemia+ jaundice/ elevated LFT + in northwestern USA=

you see intra-erythrocytic cross shaped parasites

babesiosis ( same vector as lyme D : ixodes-stick)

exposed to bird/ bat in ohio/ mississippi river


a medium that inhibit growth of all except N gonorrhoea/ meningitis is:

thyer-martin medium

past exposure to TB with no symptoms is due to

Th1 : CD4 T lymphocytes and macrophages

to study associations in case-control study , use ...

exposure odds ratio

odds of cases/ odds of controls

GEitis acquired from

- pets

- day care

- shellfish

- camping

- campylobacter

- shigella

- V. parahymolyticus

- giardia

seizure meds

- eTHuxamide

- phynetoin, valporic, carbamezapine

- block Ca++ channels in THalamus

- block Na channels

MAOI acts through.....

inhibiting MAO degradation pre-synaptically.

same MOA to tyramine

the only cell can not use ketone bodies are

RBC...coz no mitochindria

liver can not use ketone bodies ( no thiophorase

list the functions of lipoproteins

- Apo A

- apo B48

- apo B100

-apo C

- Apo E 3& 4v

- LCAT activation : chylomicron estratification

-chylomicron secretion by intestinal cells

-CMs uptake by extra hepatic cells

-LPL activation

-VLDL and CMs uptake by liver cells

what are the amino acids of transmembrane part of the G-protein receptors?

non polar, hydrophobic AA: alanine, phenylalanine, methionine, valine, isoleucine

usually makes for TSH, LH , FSH

a kid with confusion, vomiting high ammonium level, high orotic acid in urine? Dx =


note in carbamoyl phosphate synthase there is NO orotic acid in urine

same above findings + megaloblastic anemia=

orotic acidurea

patients with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency would have low lactic acid production by using two ketogenic AA

lysine and leucine

each fatty acid B oxidation produces :

1 NADH, 1 FADH2 , 1 acetyl-Co A( 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 GTP)

hypoglycemia + hypoketonemia=

acyl Co-A dehydrogenase deficiency/ MCAT deficiency

hypoglycemia+ high TG+ lactic acidosis+ stunt growth=

G^-phosphatase deficiency


what are neutral a.a?











diarrhoea+ pellagra+ ataxia+ excretion of nutral aa in urine =

hartnup disease

results in niacin deficiency B3

here, proline, hydroxyproline and arginine are not excreted ( as fanconi syndrome)

B12 is depleted after ......

folate is depleted after ....

4 yrs

4 months

cardiomegaly, growth retardation, PAS +ve material in lysosomes of heart and skeletal muscles, normoglycemia=

pompe= PAS +ve

acid-alfa-glucosidasex deficiency/ acid maltase deficiency

defective pathway from tyrosine to fumarate , black color urine due to high homogentisate =

alkaptunuria AR

amatoxin is a fungal poison resulting in ....

inhibition of mRNA formation by polymerase II

most affected cells are: GI and proximal convoluted tubules.

ricin: toxin from castor oil inhibit ...

rRNA formation of 60S subunit

M.pneumonia requires ------- rich medium to grow


klebsella requires ....... medium to grow as it contains bile


all organisms will respond to Abx targeting peptiglycan wall except ....

mycoplasma, ureaplasma: as those contain phospholipid layer

treatment of recurrent genital herpes:

oral acyclovir, vala or famcyclovir.

for years and then re-evaluated

G-ve rods ... describe approach

on MacConey agar

- lactose frementer: fast vs slow

fast: E.Coli, klebsella, enterobacter

slow: citrobacter, serratia

- lactose non ferementer:


oxidase positive: psudomonas

oxidase -ve: do H2S

H2S + : salmonella and proteus

H2S -ve: shigella

what is hydrocephalus ex taco?

ventricular dilates 2nd to cortical atrophy.

no increase in CSF pressure.

exp: HIV, demetias

central hypogonadism+ ansomnia+ normal vision =

kallman syndrome

defect migration of GnRH neutrons to their location at hypothalamus

in any gene surgery , they should be worried .... ligament as all blood supply to ovaries from aorta goes there

suspensory ligament

transmural inflammation with fibroid necrosis anywhere in the body except lungs =


a drug can precipitate opioid withdrawal ...


providing preventive measures in health care system is called ....


pitutary tutors can cause prolactinomas. what are the effects on GnRH production?

low GnRH

low LH

low testosterone

function of alfa 1 is


vagal stimulant leading to low PR

increase uretheral sphincter tone and prostate contraction

alfa 2 mediation through

decrease IOP

low lipolysis

low presynaptic NE release

high plot aggregation

ketamine blocks morphine tolerance by ..

NMDA receptor block which blocks glutamate ( glutamate can worsen opioid tolerance)

in addition of systemic Sx; pyelonephritis will have ...... in urine

WBC casts

CK increase is a result of ...... damage

cell membrane

treatment of:


- VT

- adenosine

- lidocaine .. now amiodarone

vaginal infection, what is interrupted in:

- vaginosis

- trichomoniasis

- candida

-high PH

- high PH

-decrease lactobacillus normal flora

ACEI will affect unilateral RAS or bilateral?


niacin treatment for DLP can cause flushing through ....

PG mediation.

thats y use aspirin 1 hr prior to give niacin

for adnexal mass removal; which ligament should be ligated?


isobrobide dinitrate is given BID instead of TID to prevent.....


coronary sinus dilatation = ...

pulmonary HTN

most important risk for CIN is ...

multiple sexual partners

B1 blocker reduces BP by inhibiting catecholamines release and decrease .....

renin secretion.

to maximize the power, researches should maximize .....

power 1-B

young lady + ETOH and smoking make her sick + reddish urine + abdominal pain + skin changes later =

PBG deaminase deficiency = AIP

AD and treated by heme and dextrose infusion

four causes for lactic acidosis:

- decrease oxygen utilization: CN poisoning

- less oxygen delivery: shock, cardiac/ pulmonary failure.

- increase metabolic demands: seizure and exercise.

- decrease lactate catabolism: liver failure.

- enzyme defects

two enzymes are vulnerable to lead poisoning ..

ALA dehydratase


Furosemide on high doses can cause ....


describe genome replication of Hepatitis B?

doulble stranded DNA to single template RNA to double st DNA

opsonization is affected by .... bacteria


bacteria that impair the complement pathway is through .....

staph protein A

IgA protease is secreted by


impair IgA function at the mucosal level

describe tongue

- motor innervation

- sensory innervation

- taste innervation

- all motor is hypoglossal except palatoglossus : vagus

- sensory 2/3: mandibular branch of 5

post 1/3 : glossopharyngeal

- taste: 2/3; chorda tympani

post 1/3: GPH nerve

what is leuprolide

GnRH analogue the decrease testosterone and DHT

what medications is used ETOH

- abstience promoting/ prevent craving

- maintain abstenience


disulfram, acamprosate

rifampin resistance is through ...

genetic mutation of DNA dependent RNA polymerase

the only part that persists through the respiratory epithelium is ....


when you hear S4?

restrictive cardiomyopathy


diastolic HF

what prevent lactation in 35 week pregnant?

estrogen and progestrone

what is the reason for gestational diabetes?


in a patient with depression with PMH of rapid response to SSRI... you should ask about.... symptoms.


oxalacetate + pantothenic acid/CoA =

citrate + succinyl CoA

treat neonatal abstinence syndrome with ...

morphine/ methadone

post strept pharyngitis complication =

post street skin/ pharyngitis complication =

acute rheumatic fever


nitrates should be accompanied by ........ to prevent reflux tachycardia and increase oxygen demands to the heart.


HIV +ve, with fever and diarrhoea, CD4 < 50 , pathogen grows at 41:..


treat with azithromycin

acute mania is treated by ....

mood stabilizer: valporic aid, carbamezapine, lithium.

atypical antupsychotic: olanzepine

the only condition resulting in high ammonia AND OROTIC ACID is ...

OTC deficiency

muscles of mastications are innervated by

mandibular branch of CN 5

mifeprestone is .....