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138 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Two sets of bones in the skull

- Cranial bones

- Facial bones

Cranial bones

- Form the cranial cavity

- Encloses brain

- Provide attachment sites for some head and neck muscles

Facial bones

- Form the framework of the face

- Provide openings for the passage of air and food

- Holds teeth in place (anchor muscle of the face)

- Most form cavities for the sense organs of sight, taste, and smell

Frontal Bone forms Facial 'icons'...

- Forehead

- Eye socket (superior part)

- Forms much of the anterior floor of the cranial cavity

Forehead - bone markings

- Supraorbital notch/foramen

- Coronal Suture

- Unseen Frontal sinus

Supraorbital Notch/Foramen

- Has blood vessels and nerves passing through to supply eyelid



Frontal Sinus

- Can't see, open space within bone itself

- Lightens weight of skull (hollow bones)

- Voice production when open = resonance

Eye Socket (superior part)

- Roof of the orbits

Parietal Bones

- 2

- Form much of the sides and roof of cranial cavity

- Form major sutures

Major Sutures

- Sagittal suture

- Coronal suture

- Lambdoid suture

- Squamous suture

Sagittal Suture

- Along the midsagittal line

- Connects Parietal→Parietal

Coronal Suture

- Connects frontal→2 Parietal bones

Lambdoid Suture

- Connects 2 parietal→Occipital bone

Squamous Suture

- Flat sides, Have 2

- Connect parietal bone→Temporal (Floor of cranial cavity)

Temporal Bones

- (2) Forms the inferior lateral part of the cranial floor plus part of the lateral wall near the ear (sides of ears/sides and floor of cranial cavity

- Inferior to parietal bones

- Have to distinguish between Left and Right

"Temporal" - Latin roots

- Comes from Latin word for time

- 1st place your hair turns gray

Specific Regions of Temporal Bone

- Squamous, Temporal, Petrous, and Mastoid Regions

Squamous Region

Flat part at the temple "temporal squama"

Petrous Portion

- At the floor of the cranial cavity

- Rocky, triangular ridge on the inside of skull between the sphenoid and occipital bones

- Ridges come out from side→center of skull

- Houses bones in ear

- Always on inside

Mastoid Portion

- Located posterior and inferior to the external/internal auditory meatus

- Mastoid = breast-shaped

Styloid Process

- Muscle attachment site for your tongue and some of your neck muscles

- Always points downwards

Zygomatic Process

- Articulates with the temporal process of the zygomatic (cheek) bone

- Always points forward


Forms Joint

Mastoid Process

- Rounded bump of the mastoid portion that points downward

- Outside and back of temporal bones

- Muscle attachment site for important neck muscles (turn head, pulling on one side of mastoid process, back = both)

Temporal Region

- Region around ear

- 1st place you turn grey = long time

Zygomatic Arch

- The zygomatic process articulates with the temporal process of the zygomatic bone and together they form the zygomatic arch = cheekbone

Temporal Squama

- Thin flat part of the temporal bone that forms anterior and superior parts of the temple (region around ear)

Mandibular Fossa

- Smooth indent on temporal bone where the mandible articulates with the temporal bone = forms temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

- Only moveable joint in head

Internal/External Auditory Meatus

- Both housed in petrous portion

- House for special sense organ for hearing

- Hole with depth to it

Jugular Foramen

- Formed from 2 bones with cut out in edges coming together (temple+occipital bones)

- Only found in articulated skulls

- Hole which has some cranial nerves pass through

Carotid Canal

- Where carotid artery passes through

Occipital Bone

- Forms much of the posterior wall and the posterior floor of the cranial cavity

- The one with giant hole

Prominent Surface Features of the Occipital Bone

- Lambdoid suture

- Jugular foramen

- Foramen magnum

- 2 Occipital condyles

- Hypoglossal canal

- External occipital protuberance and Nuchal lines

Delete card

- Where it connects with temporal bones→forms jugular foramen

Foramen Magnum

- Where the spinal cord enters the cranial cavity to attaches to the brain (giant hole)

- Technically where 2 dorsal body cavities connect (cranial + spinal cavity)

- Meaning: hole - big

Occipital Condyles

- Smooth hill because: in life, it is covered with articular (hyaline) cartilage

- Places where occipital bone and skull articulate with C1- atlas (1st cervical vertebra)

- When nod yes = rocking occipital condyles on the atlas

Hypoglossal Canal

- Tough to see

- Hole that sits in wall of occipital condyles

- Allows passage for the hypoglossal nerve (Cranial nerve XII, 12)

- Where cranial nerve 12 exits the cranial cavity→body

External Occipital Protuberance and Nuchal Lines

-Muscle attachment sites, contract muscles along these when pull head back

Sphenoid Bone (Tufte's Favorite)

- Articulates with all other cranial bones - "keystone of cranium"

- Provides considerable stability of the skull

- Lies at the middle part of the base of skull

- Has a complex shape resembling a pterodactyl

- Greater wings and lesser wings

- Contains 5 important foramina or fissures

Greater/Lesser Wings

- Flared portion

- Big = Bottom Small=Top

Pterygoid Process

- Hang down from sphenoid bone

- Legs of pterodactyl

- Form back part of skull and back part of oral cavity/Throat and nasal cavity

- Rigid to maintain opening between nose, throat, nasal cavity

Optic Canal/Foramen

- Where optic nerve (Cranial Nerve II) passes into the orbit

Cranial Nerve II

- Optic nerve

- Eyeball sends a nerve through optic canal→brain to produce sense of vision

Foramen ovale

- Oval hole at base of lateral pterygoid process in the greater wing

Foramen Rotundum

- Round hole located at the junction of the anterior and medial parts of the sphenoid bone

Foramen Lacerum

- Lesser hole bounded anteriorly by sphenoid bone and medially by sphenoid and occipital bones. Parynangeal artery passes through here

Sphenoidal Sinus

Space inside body that drains into nasal cavity

Sella Turcica

- Bony enclosure that completely surrounds the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to protect them

- Indent on the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid that is incredibly thick and firm

Superior Orbital Fissure

Triangular slit (top of eyesocket) lateral to the body between the greater and lesser wings

- Blood vessels and cranial nerves passes through

Inferior Orbital Fissure

- Bottom wide crack of eye socket

- Formed from the sphenoid bone and the maxilla

- Only see in articulated with both bones

Ethmoid Bone (Tufte's 2nd Favorite)

Located in the anterior part of the cranial floor, medial to the orbits and look spongelike (sits on nose and looks like a rooster

Ethmoid Sinuses

- A bunch of holes/air spaces

Perpendicular Plate

- Hangs down into nasal cavity

- Divides nasal cavity into 2 openings (nostrils)

Superior and Middle Nasal Conchae

- Pieces of bone that stick out into nasal cavity. 3 on left, 3 on right

- Hang into nasal cavity and create air turbulance

How do the conchae create air turbulence?

- When inhale, air bounces of conchae to filter out garbage

- The conchae are covered with mucous membranes - solid stuff sticks to mucus = self cleaning (colored mucus)

- Tempers air - warms and humidifies before goes to lungs

Cribriform Plate

- Flat part on either side of crista galli with holes in it called olfactory/cribriform foramina

- Sits at very top of nasal cavity

- Cranial nerve I (Olfactory nerve)

Cranial Nerve I

- Olfactory Nerve

- Responsible for special sense of smelling

- Comes out of bottom of brain - takes processes from neurons and sends them through olfactory foramina and lets them hang down in nasal cavity

- Only cranial nerve in direct contact with environment - Odor molecules chemically bind to neurons

Crista Galli

- Projects superiorly from cribriform plate, triangular process

- Latin word for cocks comb

- Where you anchor your meninges = anchor's brain

Facial Bones

- Nasal Bones

- Lacrimal Bones

- Palatine Bone

- Inferior Nasal Conchae

- Vomer

Nasal Bones

- Paired bones that form bridge of nose

- Hyaline cartilage hangs off here

- 2 small rectangular bones on side of nose = gives shape

- Usually don't break this, usually disarticulate the cartilage

Lacrimal Bones

- Small rectangular paired bones with little holes that form the anterior portion of the medial wall of eye socket

Lacrimal foramen

- Little holes that empties into nasal cavity that allows for the drainage of tears

- Why nose gets stuffy when cry

Palatine Bone

- Forms posterior part of hard palate, as well as portions of the eye socket and nasal cavity wall and floor

- 2 Rectangular shaped

Inferior nasal conchae

- 2 rectangular shaped bones that protrude into nasal cavity and form bottom ridge that helps create air turbulence

- Separate from the ethmoid's superior and middle nasal conchae


- Tiny rectangular bone that forms bottom part of nasal septum

- Divides nasal cavity into 2 separate cavities (nostrils)

- Bottom part=vomer

- Top part = perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone

Hard Palate

- Roof of mouth


To cry


- Largest and strongest facial bone

- Allows you to chew your food

- Only movable bone of the skull - Forms TMJ, ear ossicles move too

- Muscles attached to mandible produce the most force per square inch out of any muscle and bone combination in body

Mandible Important Bone Markings

- Coronoid process

- Mandibular foramen

- Mandibular condyle

- Mandibular notch

- Mandibular ramus

- Mandibular angle


- Alveoular process

- Mental foramina

Mandibular Foramen

- On inside surface of mandible

- Passageway for blood vessels and nerves

- In dental work, dentists numb nerve that comes out of the mandibular foramina to numb teeth at back of mouth

Mandibular Condyle

- Round smooth surface on the bone that articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone

- What you move when moving jaw with respect to the temporal bone

Mandibular Notch

- Notch between coronoid process and mandibular condyle

Mandibular Ramus

- Branch of the mandibular

- Ends when the coronoid process and the mandibular condyles notch starts

Mandibular Angle

- angle between the body of the mandible

- angle of jawline

Alveolus (Alveolar)

- little cavities carved out in the mandible that bottom teeth fit in (tooth sockets)

- Bone that builds alveolar process

Mental Foramina (foramen = 1)

- 2 holes on either side with mental nerve passing through

Mental Region

- chin

Mental nerve

- Nerve that gives you feeling

- When dentist wants to numb the front part of bottom teeth, go after mental nerve

- Called mental because when you hit someone square in chin = knock them out - nerve instantly goes to brain and shuts down

Maxillary bones (maxillae)

- 2 - keystones of facial bones

- articulate with all facial bones except mandible

- contain maxillary sinuses

- Forms part of inferior orbital fissure

Maxillary Sinuses

- Larges paranasal sinuses

- Hollow space in bone

Bone Markings of Maxillae

- Infraorbital foramen

- Alveolar Margin

- Anterior nasal spine

- Intermaxillary suture

- Maxillary sinus

Infraorbital Foramen

- Hole that sits in the center of each maxilla, below the orbits

- Supply blood vessels and nerves to cheek muscles

Alveolar Margin (Alveolar Process)

- Bony part of tooth sockets that form the alveoli for the top teeth

Anterior Nasal Spine

- Pointed projection anterior to intermaxillary suture

Intermaxillary suture

- Place where 2 bones fused together

Maxillary Sinus

- Empties into nasal cavity

Zygomatic Bone

- Helps form part of eye socket and huge part of cheek when it articulates with the maxilla

- Temporal process that articulates with the temporal bone's zygomatic process = zygomatic arch - cheekbone

Bones that make up orbits

8 Bones make up orbits: 3 cranial and 4 Facial

- Frontal

- Zygomatic

- Ethmoid

- Sphenoid

- Nasal

- Maxilla

- Palatine

- Lacrimal

5 Openings of orbits

- Optic Foramen

- Superior orbital fissure

- Inferior orbital fissure

- Supraorbital foramen

- Lacrimal Fossa

Paranasal Sinuses

- Cavities within frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxilla

- Purpose is the to lighten load of head and make bones hollow

- Depth in voice - resonance chambers

Bones associated with skull that don't fit in with axial skeleton definition: make enclosure for organ

- Auditory Ossicles

- Hyoid Bone

Auditory Ossicles

- Bones of middle ear: Malleus, Incus, Stapes

- 3 smallest bones in body - 2 pairs = 6

- Contained within petrous portion

- Uses for special sense of hearing

- Only articulate with each other

- Sit between tympanic membrane and inner ear

- Move when sound waves hit eardrum

Hyoid Bone

- Sits directly under your mandible and shaped like a U

- Has greater and lesser horns projecting upwards

- Attaches tongue muscles

- Provides opening into trachea at all times

- Sits right on top of adam's apple (Larynx)

- Serves as moveable base for the tongue and allows you to speak

- Fracture can be used to indicate strangulation


- Huge powerful muscle

- Has multiple muscles contained within

- When tongue moves, change shape of muscles in tongue, pulling on hyoid bone, change shape of vocal cords in larynx = gives different voice inflection/words

Vertebral Column

- Adults have 26 Vertebrae

- Form protective enclosure for spinal cord

- Forms vertebral canal - dorsal body cavity

- serves as muscle attachment sites for the neck and back

- Allows you to stand up right and disperse force throughout body

- Held in place by a ton of ligaments

Cervical Vertebrae

- 7

- directly below skull

- smallest and lightest (least amount of weight to carry)

Thoracic Vertebrae

- 12

- ribs attached to them

- help form thoracic cage

Lumbar Vertebrae

- 5

- Separate

- help form curve from back to butt

- Massive, largest - very thick, flat, fat

- processes are flat and square for very strong, powerful back muscles to keep you up right

Fused Sacral Vertebrae

- Forms embryonically

Fused Coccygeal Vertebrae

- Form the coccyx (tailbone)

- 3 to 6

- Forms fully around 26

Common Structures of most vertebrae

- Body (centrum)

- Transverse Process

- Spinous process

- Superior and Inferior articular processes and facets

- Vertebral Foramen

- Vertebral Arch

Body(Centrum) of vertebrae

- weight-bearing portion, stacked in a line

- Faces cavities/Forward

Transverse Process

- Sticks out laterally

- #1 job = muscle attachment

- In thoracic vertebra - where ribs articulate to help form thoracic cage

- In cervical vertebra - hole in middle of transverse process - protect vertebral arteries = blood vessels that carry blood to brain

Spinous Process

- Stick up and to back of body

- Muscle attachment sites

Superior and Inferior Articular Processes and Facets

- Facet = indent on process that's covered with cartilage

- Place where one vertebra articulates with another vertebra

Vertebral Foramen

- Hole formed by vertebra

- Collectively form vertebral canal where spinal cord passes through

Vertebral Arch

- Pedicle

- Lamina


- Part that sits between body and transverse process


- Part that sits between transverse process and spinous process

Cervical Vertebra

- C1-C7

- All have 3 holes

- Vertebral foramen

- 2 Transverse foramin

- Body is small and rectangular

- Have Bifid Spinous Foramen Processes

Spina Bifida

- 2 Lamenae fail to fuse together before birth = higher up in vertebral column = more severe


- C1 = greek mythology - hold up world/brain

- Supports the skull

- Superior articular facets receive the occipital condyles

- Lacks body and spinous process = allows flexion/extension of neck - when rock head you'd crack it off

- Huge vertebral foramen = spinal cord huge at this point


- C2

- Has body and bifid spinous process

- Extra bone marking that sticks up from body - Dens/Odontoid Process

Dens/Odontoid Process

- Projects superiorly

- Where the axis articulates with the atlas

- Cradled in the anterior arch of the atlas

- Acts as a pivot for rotation of atlas and skull

- Rotate head side to side = Swiveling atlas around dens

Thoracic Vertebrae

- (T1-T12)

- 12 of them, all articulate with ribs

- Looks like giraffe

- Special markings: Long spinous process, pointed downwards, Extra facets (costal facets), larger than cervical vertebra, mainly smaller than lumbar, vertebral foramina are circular, transverse processes articulate with tubercles of ribs

Costal Facets

- where ribs articulate

- hard to see

Lumbar Vertebrae

- (L1-L5)

- Look like moose

- 5 Most inferior of free

- Larges

- Have short square parts = looks heavy

- Articular processes face laterally and medially

- Transverse processes are thin and tapered

- Vertebral foramina are triangular


- (S1-S5)

- Sacrad bone

- Formed from fusion of 5 separate vertebrae

- Fuse around 16, fully around 26

- "Sacrad" or "holy" bone

- Articulates with L5 superiorly and the coccyx inferiorly

- Auricular Surface

Auricular Surface

- 2 - one on each side

- where you articulate with pelvic girdle


- Tailbone (remnant of vestibular tail)

- Consists of 2-6 small vertebrae that fuse by the age of 20-30

- Forms little bit of support on bottom of pelvic cavity for organs and little muscle attachment

The Thorax

- Skeletal part of thorax

- Forms base of thoracic cavity

- #1 job is to protect vital organs in thoracic cavity (lung/heart)

- Provides connection point for pectoral girdle and upper limbs

- Provides attachment sites for muscles used for breathing

Thorax Components

- Thoracic vertebrae - posteriorly

- ribs - laterally - articulate with thoracic vertebrae

- sternum and costal cartilage - I anteriorly


- Formed from 3 sections

- Manubrium

- Body

- Xiphoid process


- Superior section that looks like shield

- Articulates with medial end of clavicles

- Suprasternal jugular notch

- Clavicular notches

Suprasternal Jugular Notch

- center indent with jugular vein and carotid artery passing through

Clavicular Notches

- where pectoral girdles connects to axial skeleton - only connection point

- lateral

Body of Sternum

- Sternal angle

- Sides notched at articulations for costal cartilage of ribs 2-7

Xiphoid process

- Tip top part

- Last thing to turn to bone - ossifies around 40

- Provides attachment for some abdominal muscles in breathing

- Spearing in football = outlawed due to breaking xiphoid process


- 12 pairs, 24 total

- attached to thoracic vertebrae

- True ribs, False ribs, Floating ribs

True Ribs

- Ribs 1-7

- Indirect attachment - own personal piece of costal cartilage attach to sternumm

False Ribs

- Ribs 8-10

- Indirect attachment (share piece of costal cartilage to attach to sternum)

Floating Ribs

- Ribs 11-12

- Don't attach to sternum

Ribs 1 and 2

- Small and Flat

Ribs 11 and 12

- Small but pointy

Costal Groove

- Bottom of all ribs where blood vessels and nerves supplying ribs go

- Makes bottom ridge of ribs sharp and thin

Head of ribs

- curved end (fat end)


- Bump where you attach to vertebra= goes to back