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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Types of Muscle Fibres

3 Types of Fibres

-Slow Twitch (Type I)

-Fast Twitch (Type IIa) - Fast Oxidative

-Fast Twitch (Type IIb) - Fast Glycotic

Speed Of Contraction

Type I - Slow

Type IIa - Fast

Type IIb - Fast

Force Of Contraction

Type I - Low

Type IIa - High

Type IIb - High

Resistance To Fatigue

Type I - High

Type IIa- Low/Moderate

Type IIb - Low

Aerobic Capacity

Type I - High

Type IIa - Low/Moderate

Type IIb - Low

Anaerobic Capacity

Type I - Low

Type IIa - High

Type IIb - High

Mitochondrial Density

Type I - High

Type IIa - Low/Moderate

Type IIb - Low

Capillary Density

Type I - High

Type IIa - Low/Moderate

Type IIb - Low

Myoglobin Density

Type I - High

Type IIa - Low/Moderate

Type IIb - Low

PC Stores

Type I - Low

Type IIa - High

Type IIb - High

Motor Neurone Size

Type I - Small

Type IIa - Large

Type IIb - Large

Suited Activities

Type I - Endurance Events - Marathon

Type IIa - High Intensity Endurance - 1500m

Type IIb - Highly explosive - 100m

Other Factors That Affect Success

- Training

- VO2 max

- Commitment/ Dedication

- Necessary Support - Coaches/Family

Effect Of Endurance Training On Muscle Fibres

- Greatest effect on Slow Twitch fibres.

- Increased Mitochondrial Density

- Myoglobin levels increase

- Denser capillary network

- Improve Aerobic Capacity

- Higher resistance to fatigue

Effects of Anaerobic/Strength Training on muscle fibres

- Greatest effect on Fast Twitch fibres

- Hypertrophy of muscles

- Increased PC Stores

- Increased Contraction Power

Motor Units

- Motor Units consist of a nerve and the fibres that are attached to the nerve.

- A single motor neurone will control between 15 and 2000 muscle fibres

Characteristics Of Motor Units

1) They're different sizes

2) All fibres in a motor unit are the same type

3) The all or none law - All the fibres in a motor unit contract at the same time, they're all contracted or all relaxed.

Controlling Muscle Contraction Force - Spa tail Summation

- Varying size of motor unit - big unit/ more force

- Number of motor units - lots = more force

- Varying types of motor Units - Fast Twitch = more force

Controlling Muscular Contraction Force - Wave Summation

- Frequency of impulse

- Wave impulses become more frequent, the muscle fibre doesn't have time to relax fully therefore producing a more powerful Contraction, the most powerful being tetanic.

- Tetanic Contraction means the impulses are so close together the muscle fibres can't relax, producing the most powerful Contraction.

Ensuring the correct amount of force is used.

1) As the muscle contracts, the proprioceptors detect changes in the muscle, such as the speed of the Contraction and it's changing length.

2) The proprioceptors then send this info to the medulla where it's compared with memories and past experiences that are stored in the long term memory to ensure that the correct amount of force is used.

PNF - Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation

- Advanced stretching technique.

- Considered one of the most effective forms of flexibility training for increasing range of motion.

PNF - Method

- With partner, Passive stretch

1) Stretch target muscle to limit

2) Isometrically contract target muscle for 10 secs.

3) Relax target muscle.

4) Restretch Target muscle. Will be an increase in range of movement.

PNF - How it works

PNF activates two different proprioceptors which send info to the CNS.

PNF proprioceptors - Muscle Spindles

- Muscle Spindles detect tension in muscles.

1) When target muscle is stretched, Spindles detect increased tension

2) If muscle is stretched too far then it sends an impulse to CNS to make it contract.

- This response is called the stretch reflex

- Role is too prevent injury.

Golgi Tendon Organs

- Detect Tension in muscles/tendons

1) When the target muscle is contracted Isometrically during the second part of PNF the golgi tendons detect the rise in PNF.

2) The CNS inhibits impulses being sent to the muscle.

3) This causes the muscle to relax

- Response is called autogenic inhibition

- It overrides the stretch reflex