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30 Cards in this Set

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The Epic of Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh was an early king

Roots dates to before 2000 B.C.E.

It describes the civilization as the ancient people of Mesopotamia understood it

Gilgamesh shows the ambition of a kings and their value to the community.

He stirs resentment by demanding sexual favors from new brides, but the community relies on his immense strength, wisdom and courage.


Practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to encounter and interact with the spirit world for the benefit of the community.

Characteristics of the Korean kingdoms of the early medieval period and of early societies of central Asia.

A shaman is a person regarded as having access to, and influence in, the world of benevolent and malevolent spirits, who typically enters into a trance state during a ritual, and practices divination and healing.


Tenochtitlan is the capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco.

 In 1325 B.C the Aztecs began constructing twin capitals. Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco.

Population of Tenochtitlan was about 150,000 on the eve of the Spanish conquest.

Mexico City was constructed on it’s ruins.

Ibn Battuta
~Where: Morocco (born) 

~When: 14th century

~What: Considered the worlds greatest traveler

~Who: A moroccon explorer

~Why: Wrote the Rhila which is a literature book of the encounters he experienced on his trips. 

~How:  trips to North Africa, the Horn of Africa, West Africa and Eastern Europe, and to the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China.

~Where: Malay Peninsula (Malaysia)

~When: 1400s

~What: The third smallest Malaysian state; known as "The Historic State"

~Who: Iskandar Shah or Sri Majara 

~Why: N/A

~How: Shah found a port that was accessible in all seasons and was located on the narrowest point of the Malacca Strait.

Amerigo Vespucci
~Where: Florence, Italy

~When: 16th century

~What: first demonstrated that Brazil and the West Indies did not represent Asia's eastern outskirts as initially conjectured from Columbus' voyages, but instead constituted an entirely separate landmass hitherto unknown to Afro-Eurasians. Also wrote and published Mundus Novus 

~Who: He was an explorer, navigator, cartographer, and financer

~Why: Basically founded South America and did many voyages to the Americas

~How: Aided by the rulers of Spain and Portugal​

conquered Mexico, Central America and Peru
early sixteenth century Spanish adventurers
extended the pattern around the Caribbean
born in Anatolia and traveled around the western Asia and the Mediterranean lands
Heir to the technique, also known as the "Father of History"
due to the writing of historia, we acquired the modern meaning of history, which helped the western traditions of historical writing.
-name given by Europeans to Islam
-time period: 8th-11th century during the expansion of Islam
-significance: conquered the Middle East, Africa and Spain
Suleiman the Magnificent
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 who not only undertook bold military campaigns that enlarged his realm but also oversaw the development of what came to be regarded as the most characteristic achievements of Ottoman Civilization in the fields of law, literature, art, and architecture.
Timur (Tamerlane)
-Mongol Emperor
-known as being cruel
-reign during 14th-15th century
-significance:undefeated, defeated Ottomans and Ankara, his empire fell when he died
-he conquered large portions of Western Asia like Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey etc.
Zheng He
(formerly romanized as Cheng Ho)
-An imperial enuch and muslim, entrusted by the ming emperor yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean. from southeast Asia to Africa. Explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral during China's early ming dynasty
-Born into a Muslim family. However his religious beliefs became all embracing in his adulthood
-one early voyage, Zheng He visited long established Chinese merchant communities in Southeast Asia to cement their allegiance to the Ming Empire and collect taxes. The island resisted and Zheng slaughtered the men to set an example.
-Great great great grandson of Sayyid Ajjal Shams, a person who served in the administration of the Mongol Empire <- - extra info.
pg 325 meaning (new soldier)
-infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.
-Sultan Murad I created the force in 1383
-The Janissaries were chosen at about age 6 among the Christian boys living in Anatolia to become the elite fighting force of Ottoman Empire.
-Children that were selected , received higher standard of education to become the ruling class of Vizlers as well as engineers, architects, physicians and scientists
Hanseatic League
pg. 313
-An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in Northern Germany. Founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.
-Commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe.
-Created to protect economic interests and diplomatic privileges in the cities and countries and along the trade routes the merchants visited.
***other definition**
Also known as the Hansa, the Hanseatic League was formed in Northern Germany in the 12th century. It was created so that members would share the risks of trading, the hazards of travel and the problems of dealing with the fueds that existed in their government between rulers. The hansa prospered for over 300 years and at one point had over 70 cities and towns in its alliance. The Hanseatic League as a whole defeated King Valdemar resulting in the “Treaty of Stralsund” which showed its power and resilience.  The rise of national states is what eventually lead to the end of the Hanseatic League.

A God of ancient Mesoamerica that was represented as the “feathered serpent” and was considered one of the most important Gods to exist. He was important in religion for over 2000 years from the Pre-Classic era until the Spanish conquest. The characteristic that were associated with him mirrored those of Jesus Christ as well. He was a God that could also appear in human form. It is said that he is the God to create humans again after they no longer existed. He taught people astronomy, agriculture, calendar making, and various crafts and was the patron of merchants. He was tricked by his enemy which caused his to throw himself into a fire and kill himself. It was said that his as body burned, birds flew forth from the flames, and his heart went up into the heavens to become Venus, the morning and evening star. Many Aztecs believed that he would come back to his people one day after a period of 52 years, but he never did.

Atahualpa was the last Inca ruler which spanned parts of present-day Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Bolivia and Colombia. He was executed by Francisco Pizarro in 1533, which marked the end of the Inca empire. The irony is that Atahualpa had just had his brother captured ( who was the king of the southern part of their empire) because the two were at war civilly. As he was celebrating his brothers capture, word got out that foreigners were heading to the area. Atahaulpa felt there wasn’t a need for concern. However when the Inca people went to talk to Pizzaro the Spanish were hiding with their horsemen in the buildings around the main square at Cajamarca, and when the Inca arrived, they came out,slaughtering hundreds and capturing Atahualpa. He thought he could bribe them with gold, and got plenty of gold sent to them. Atahaulpa had three important generals that the Spanish feared would attack them for the return of Atahaulpa. The Spanish ended up capturing of the generals but they still feared attack from the other two. Atahaulpa was confident that he would be released so he didn’t see a need for attack. However the Spanish used their fear of attack to say that there was an attack heading their way and they accused Atahaulpa of treachery and he was later killed. His brother Tupac was his successor although he allowed the Spanish to control the empire. He died of smallpox and his son and namesake Tupac was the new ruler. He was later killed. He was the last of the royal Inca blood line which ended any hope for native rule in the Andes.


Mali Empire

1230 - 1600

(During the 12th century)


The Mali Empire later formed on the upper Niger River, and reached the height of power in the 14th century. Under the Mali Empire, the ancient cities of Djenné and Timbuktu were centers of both trade and Islamic learning.

The "Untouchables"
-A social class group that emerged during the Vedic Age (1500-500BCE) in India.
-they were exluded from the other 4 castes in the caste system (known as Varnas) and shunned by other castes.
-they worked in demeaning or polluting trades such as tanning (involved dead animals) and sweeping away ashes after cremations
Lorenzo(de Medici) the Magnificent
Florentine statesman, ruler, and patron of arts and letters, the most brilliant of the Medici. He ruled Florence with his younger brother
-Living in a religious community apart from secular society and adhering to a rule stipulating chastity, obedience and poverty. It was a prominent element of medieval Christianity and Buddhism. Monasteries were the primary centers of learning and literacy in medieval Europe.
pg 241,244
-A Roman Historian in (c. 56-120c.e) who wrote the strongest about the idea of the "Noble savages"(the Celts who were uncivilized but also untainted by society)
pg.116 (global passages)
-The "divine wind" which the Japanese credited with blowing Mongol invaders away from their shores in 1281.
-The leader of the Islamic World
ruled as absolute rulers during 8th-11th century
-when Islamic world started to fragment, they lost their power
-time period : 8th-11th century
-what: Muslims and Jews were kicked out and tortured;
-Significance : allows Spanish and Portuguese to start world exploration
Hundred Years' War
-time period : 1337-1453
-seres of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families
-significance : armies depended less on knights and more on bowman, pikeman, musketeers, and artillerymen; rise of new monarchies; centralized states with fixed boundaries and stronger representative institutions.
pg. 323-324
Popol Vuh
Meaning "property" or "owned slave" of the king


(1250 – 1517)


Under the Islamic System of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria).

Yuan Dynasty

Teacher Version:
-sword used for dueling during the Renaissance Period from 15th-19th century
-came in different forms, but one quality that they all shared was the emphasis on the "point"
-significance : not a military weapon, it was a civilian weapon

**other version**
A small sword, especially of the 18th century, having a narrow blade and used for thrusting (double-edge blade and used fpr slashing and thrusting)