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11 Cards in this Set

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Describe conditions that may result in clumped dispersion, uniform dispersion, and random dispersion of individuals in a population.
Clumped- Animals groups together where food is abundant

Uniforms- Animals are spread out, maintained by aggressive interactions between neighbors.

Random- Plants and flowers grow in random areas due to windblown seeds
Describe characteristics of populations that exhibit Type I, Type II, and Type III surviroship curves.
Type I- stead line until older age then drops steaply (humans)

Type II- intermediate, a constant death rate over the organisms life span.

Type III- curve drops shortly at the start then flattens out after the early period.
(oyster before shell)
Define and distinguish between semelparity and iteroparity. Explain what factors may favor the evolution of each life history strategy.
Semelparityis A life history in which adults have but a single reproductive opportunity to produce large numbers of offspring, such as the life history of the Pacific salmon; also known as big-bang reproduction.
Iteroparity is A life history in which adults produce large numbers of offspring over many years; also known as repeated reproduction.
In unperdictable environments semelparity is favored since survival rate is low but there are many offsprings. Iterparity will be favored in a more dependable environment for resources could be limited
Explain, with examples, how limited resources and trade-offs may affect life histories.
Reproducing with limited resource will cause the parents surival rate to decline as a trade off to raise its young
Compare the exponential model of population growth with the logistic model
exponential population growth is The geometric increase of a population as it grows in an ideal, unlimited environment.

logistic population growth is A model describing population growth that levels off as population size approaches carrying capacity.
Explain how an environments carrying capacity affects the per capita rate of increase of a population
As the per capita rate of increase approaches zero the carrying capacity is reached
distinguish between r-selected populations and K-selected populations
r-selection
The concept that in certain (r-selected) populations, a high reproductive rate is the chief determinant of life history.

K-selection
The concept that in certain (K-selected) populations, life history is centered around producing relatively few offspring that have a good chance of survival.
Explain how density-dependent factors affect population growth
Competition for resources

Territoriality(cheetas)

Disease(bad health)

Predation(preditors increase)
Describe boom-and-bust population cycles, explaining possible causes of lynx/hare fluctuations
Boom-and-bust cycles are unpredictable intervals. In lynx and hares, the cycles may have been caused by food shortages during winter. Second the cycles may be due to predator-prey interactions.
Describe the history of human population growth
After the industrail revolution our population has skyrocketed.
Define the demographic transition
A shift from zero population growth in which birth rates and death rates are high to zero population growth characterized instead by low birth and death rates.