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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
doctrine of specific nerve energies
each sense has its own nerve type, later determined that brain does this. by Muller
sensations vs. physical reality
we are conscious of sensations, not physical reality
eradicated vitalism debate
studied metabolic processes in frogs
conservation of energy
energy is constant, cannot be created or destroyed.
nerve conduction
first to measure speed of nerve conduction
Theory of perception (Helmholtz)
perception is sensation and meaning from previous experience; can't be reduced to retinal images
destroyed Kants categories of thought
Helmholtz theory of perception
theory of signs
close to representational theory
sensations and perceptions are not images of external reality, they are signs of it.
sensation at level of muscle
two-point touch
demonstrated that touch is not one but many senses
relative vs. absolute judgments
what is smallest difference b/w two weights that can be discriminated?
JND= Just noticable difference= constant fraction of standard weight
importance of relative vs. absolute judgments
first statement of systematic relationship b/w physical stimulation and psychological experience
(weber doesn't realize this but Fetchner does)
Weber's law
JND is a constant fraction of standard weight
-demonstrates kinesthetic sense
study of relationship b/w physical stimuli and psychological experiences
-created by Fetchner
-allowed objected measurement of psychological experience, expressed mathematically.
Fechner's Law
relationship b/w physical and psychological events is logarithmic.
- perception is scaled version of reality
volitional control of attention, will, choice
-broadly rationalism- active mind
Wundt's goals for experimental psychology
discover the basic elements of thought & discover the laws by which elements combine into more complex mental experiences
Elements of thought
-sensations: modality, intensity, qualities
-feelings: accompany sensations
tri-dimensional theory of feeling
pleasantness-unpleasantness, excitement-calm, strain-relaxation
(wundt) experimental (not pure), systematic, response to varying physical stimuli, not description of inner events (used to find first goal of psychology)
Wundt and perception
current experience (passive)
what's out there, what's going on physically, what's the relationship to past mental experience?
voluntary attention (active)
Creative Synthesis
arranging and rearranging sensations (active)
ex; color, flavor only exist psychologically b/c they are created
Volitional acts
motivated behavior; decision and choice is creative but not free.
Wundt was a determinist= no free will.
folk psychology
higher mental processes only knowable through naturalistic observation (thru culture, religion, customs, language)
studied higher mental processes that Wundt said couldn't be studied experimentally
used novel material to study learning as it occurs
CVC, leads to verbal learning theory
said that over-learning reduces retention loss, meaningful info more easily retained than meaningless info, distributed learning superior to massed learning
started the experimentalists society
Titchener's goals for experimental psychology
Structuralism, catalog basic elements that account for all consciousness, find neurological correlates of mental events, describe mental experience
Goal of structuralism
study consciousness, mind is total accumulation of experiences over lifetime, what are basic mental elements, how do elements combine (Associationism), neurological correlates of mental experience, DESCRIBE
stimulus error
attaining meaning to something instead of description of sensational elements
Titchener's mental elements
sensations (elements of perceptions)
images (elements of ideas)
affections (elements of emotions)
Criticized tridimentional theory of feeling
(believed in hedonism, only pleasantness-unpleasantness)
law of combination
associationism- mental processes operate by association of one state with its successor states
why did structuralism disappear?
introspection is bias, limits scope (ignores other aspects of psych.), focus on basic and not applied psych, inability to incorporate evolution
imageless thought
disagreed with Wundt that all thought had to have a specific referent
ex, searching, doubting, hesitation, confident
mental set
problem solving strategy that can be induced by instructions or by experience. operates on unconscious level.
Wursburg school
groups of psychologists under Kulpe's influence
-found imageless thoughts
higher mental processes studied experimentally
Inheritance of aquired characteristics
environment leads to individual developing, which are then passed to other generations
Spencer-Bain principle
frequency or probability of some bx increases if it is followed by pleasurable event and decreases if followed by negative event
social darwinism
coined by Spencer
saw evolution as progress towards perfection, justifies classism, darwin didn't believe there was a direction like perfection
theory of evolution
more offspring than environment can support, adaptive features or fittest traits are past down in genes (natural selection)
evolution is endless and slow
evolutionary psychology
broadened to include inclusive fitness- what's important is that genes survive, not us
very popular in current psychology- some say its the metatheory in psych.
against search for elements of consciousness but instead the function of the mind, biological rather than physiological, urged broadening of topics and methods, motivation of bx, differences instead of similarities
Father of US psychology
William James
had a crisis because his materialistic views were incompatible with free will, so he decided to except free will
James... radical empiricist, functionalist, soft determinism
established first lab in psych. (but it was for teaching, not experimental)
Principles of Psychology
written by James
opposed Wundt and structuralism
can't break psych experience into elements, observing elements changes them
stream of consciousness
the way James thought the mind works
-personal, continuous, ever-changing, selective, and functional (adaptive, evolution)
studied instincts
James-Lange theory of emotion
emotion is determined by experience of body's reaction to stimulus
(emotion is label we put on physiological arousal)
James and determinism
determinism when conducting science, non-determinism otherwise, free will required to feel like life has purpose and that we have control
James' contributions
incorporated evolutionary theory into psych., supported applied and comparative psych., eclectic approach expanded domain of psych.
Puzzle Box
animal learning, measured latency to get out of box, learning curve, reached conclusions that learning is incremental and automatic (passive mind)
strength of neural connections in learning, neural bonds or connections that associate sense impression and impulses to action
Law of Effect
reinforement makes behavior more likely, punishment less likely
Transfer of training
belief at the time that learning strengthened mental muscle. Thorndike found no evidence of this (learning only transfers if situations are similar.)
functionalism's fate
incorporated into virtually all subfields of psych., no longer considered separate school