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49 Cards in this Set

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Alternating Current (AC)

rapid and interrupted current, flowing first in one direction then the opposite direction. amps a unit measures the strength of an electric current

amp (ampere)

standard unit for measuring the strength of an electric current or the rate of flow of charge in a conductor; also called an amp


Process of forcing substances into tissues using galvanic current from the negative toward the positive pole


Positive electrode


Process of forcing acidic substances into tissues using galvanic current from the positive toward the negative pole


negative electrode

circuit breaker

Switch that automatically interrupts or shuts off an electric circuit at the first sign of overload

complete circuit

the path of an electric current from the generating source through the conductor and back to its original source


any substance, medium, or material that conducts electricity


an apparatus that changes direct current to alternating current


Process used to soften and emulsify oil and blackheads in the hair follicles.

direct current (DC)

constant current that travels in one direction only and produces a chemical reaction

electric current

the flow of electricity along a conductor


an applicator used to direct electric current from a machine to the skin


electronic facial and scalp treatments

faradic current

alternating current that produces a mechanical reaction without a chemical effect


a device that prevents excessive current from passing through a circuit

galvanic current

constant and direct current, having a positive and negative pole, that produces chemical changes in tissues and body fluids

ground fault circuit interrupter

a device that senses imbalances in an electric current

infrared rays

invisible rays with long wavelengths and deep penetration; produce the most heat of any therapeutic light


substance that does not easily transfer electricity


process of introducing water-soluble products into the skin through the use of electric current


currents used in electric facial and scalp treatments

ohm (O)

the unit of electrical resistance in an electric current


negative or positive pole of an electric current


apparatus that changes alternating current to direct current


an adjustable resistor used for controlling current in a circuit

sinosuidal current

alternating current used in scalp and facial manipulations that produces mechanical contractions

Tesla high-frequency current

thermal or heat-producing current with a high oscillation rate; also known as the violet ray

ultraviolet light

invisible rays, with short wavelengths and minimal skin penetration, that produce chemical effects and kill germs; also called actinic or cold rays

visible light

electromagnetic radiation that can be seen by the human eye

volt (v)

a unit of electrical pressure that pushes the flow of electrons forward through a conductor

watt (W)

the unit of power (amperes multiplied by volts), indicating how much electric energy is being used in one second


distance between two successive peaks of electromagnetic waves

disadvantages of ultraviolet rays

1. May destroy hair pigment

2. Continued exposure to UV light causes premature aging of the skin

3. Continued exposure to UV light causes painful sunburn

4. Continued exposure to UV light causes a higher risk of skin cancer, especially for fair-or light-skinned individuals.

UV rays are divided into these three categories

UVA (tonic rays), UVB (therapeutic rays), UVC (germicidal rays)

colors of the visible spectrum (in order)

red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet

light therapy is also known as


potential benefits of Tesla high-frequency current

1. stimulated blood circulation

2. improved glandular activity

3. increased metabolism

4. increased absorption of nutrients and elimination of wastes

5. improved germicidal action

6. relief of congestion

properties of infrared light

1. Longer wavelength

2. Lower frequency

3. More penetration

4. invisible (60% of natural sunshine)

ultraviolet properties

1. shorter wavelength

2. higher frequency

3. less penetrating

4. invisible (5% of natural sunshine)


an atom or group of atoms that has either gained or lost electrons and so has an electric charge


a material's opposition to the flow of electric current

non-moving electric charge

static electricity


a subatomic particle with a positive electric charge, located in the nucleus

an instrument for measuring the rate of flow of an electrical current

milliampere meter

a subatomic particle with a negative electric charge


a piece of metal, glass, or other conductor through which current enters or leaves an electrical device.


the influence a charged body has on the space around it that causes other charged bodies in that space to experience electric forces

electric field