Spontaneity, Conductivity, Galvanic Cells And Lead-Acid Cells

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Exploring Electrochemistry
Aim: The Aim of this experiment is to investigate electrochemistry including spontaneity, conductivity, galvanic cells and lead-acid cells. Spontaneous reactions will be explored by observing the two reactions below: Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) →Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s) Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s) → Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq)
Conductivity will be explored through measuring the conductivity of water and water with salts.
A galvanic cell will be constructed to investigate the two halves of a redox reaction and their purpose in generating voltage. Lastly, a lead-acid battery will be constructed to investigate their uses to light a light bulb.
Imagine a world without electrochemistry, you may think this isn’t quite such a big deal. Now
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This is measured in volts at standard conditions. The standard reduction potential is written in the form of half-reactions. These values are set values and can be looked up on a table. For example:
Cu2+ + 2e- →Cu
The standard reduction potential for Copper is E°=+0.340V (Chemwiki.ucdavis.edu)
Note: The values that are assigned to reduction potentials refer to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) which has a standard reduction potential of zero.
2H+ + 2e- H2(g) E0 = 0.00 V
Within this experiment the saturated calomel electrode (SCE) was used when recording the reduction potentials. The SCE is made of mercury/mercurous chloride and has a potential of +0.24V against the SHE. (experiment 1)
Oxidation Potential
Similarly, there is also an oxidation potential which is the tendency for a chemical species to be oxidised at standard
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Lead-Acid Battery
The lead acid battery was invented by the French physician Gaston Plantè in 1859, being the first rechargeable battery for commercial use. The lead chemistry continues to be used today. A lead battery is made from a lead alloy. The lead alloy is used as pure lead is too soft and would be unable to support itself.
Lead batteries are commonly used in everyday lives from car batteries to phone batteries. An advantage of the lead battery is it is able to be recharged, however often the time to charge them fully may take 14 to 16 hours (Batteryuniversity.com).
The below diagram shows a lead-acid battery and the redox reactions which

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