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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Concrete experience

is the obtained by seeing, touching, tasting, smelling, or hearing?


Are the smallest bits of concrete experience


are collections of related percepts

Abstract experience

is the imaginary world of the mind


are abstract terms used to organize concrete experience?


are ideas that result from finding the relationship between couplets.


is the part of the population of research interest that is selected for analysis.


is the entire group about which the researcher wants to generalize.


is assessed by the degree of consistency between the observations of independent observers.


assume that social realities are objective and are best studied through quantitative research methods.


assume that social relatives are subjectively constructed and are best studied through qualitative research methods.

deductive reasoning

begins with general ideas and proceeds to test their validity on specific cases.

Inductive Reasoning

begins with concrete cases and proceeds to identify general patterns and themes.

Informed Consent

is participants acknowledgment that they are aware of the risks of participation and are participating voluntarily.


occurs when the researcher cannot make a connection between respondents and evidence.


occurs when the researcher can make a connection between respondents and evidence but agrees not to do so.


Involves interviewing participants after a study to clarify what occurred and deal with any fallout related to deception.


is the testable form of a proposition.

Independent variable

Is the presumed cause in a cause and effect relationship

Dependent Variable

is the presumed effect in a cause and effect relationship.


is a carefully controlled artificial situation that allows researchers is to isolate hypothesized causes and measure their effects precisely.


in an experiment involves assigning each individual by chance processes.

Experimental Group

is the group that is not exposed to the independent variable.

Control Group

is the group that is not exposed to the independent variable.


is the degree to which results reflect reality


is the degree to which procedures yield consistent results


sociologists ask respondents questions about their knowledge, attitudes, or behavior either in a face to face or telephone interview or in a paper and pencil format.

Probability Sample

the units have a known and non-zero chance of being selected

Contingency table

is a cross-classification of cases by at least two variables that allow you to see how if at all variables are associated.


exists between two variables if the values of one variable change systemically with the values of the other.


of a relationship is determined by the degree to which change in the independent variable is associated with a change in the dependent variable.

Control Variable

identifies the context for the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable


the relationship an independent variable and a dependent variable is said to be________.


is a methodological approach the goal of which is to understand the meaning of social experience to participants in social life.


is the process of using imagination to become aware of how others define and interpret thier experience.


occurs when the presence of a researcher causes the observed people to conceal certain things or act artificially to impress the researcher.

Key Informants

are community members who are willing and able to provide credible information about an organization's culture, issues, and activities.

Analytic memos

are field notes that record a researcher's initial understanding of witnessed events.

Sensitizing Concepts

are used to capture the first impressions about meaningful patterns in field notes.

Structured Interviews

follow carefully crafted protocols to acquire the respondent's view on predetermined subjects.

Unstructured and semi-structured interviews

employ loose, open-ended formats, allowing respondents to speak their minds.


are used in qualitative research to experience social realities

Cases studies

focus on the rich description of a single case


is the extent to which qualitative investigation captures social realities as experienced by insiders.

Member Validation

asks respondents who were observed and/or interviewed to judge the authenticity of the research narrative.