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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Manifest Function of Education
obvious, intended function ( Transmitting knowledge)
future members of society by teaching them how to read, write, and instructing them on society's system of norms, values, and laws
Latent Function of Education
Less obvious, unintended Functions (maintain social control)
To keep kids busy and out of trouble. Schools teach students punctuality (scheduling, work habits, responsibility, and negotiating complex bureaucracy organization)
Functionalism on Education
the government/ state provides education for children of the family. In return the family pays taxes that keeps the government running.Families are dependent on the schools so that the children can get jobs and support their own families in the future As a result they may become law abiding citizen who support the state.
Human Capital Theory
Predicts that careers will match training. Yet most students major in field that do very little job training.
The Hidden Curriculum
Standards of behavior deemed proper by society are taught subtly in schools
School social class and outcome in life (private v. public)
Preparing students for different lifestyles
Correspondence Principle
The tendency of schools to promote the values expected of individuals in each social class and to prepare students for the type of job typically held by members of their class.
Ability Group Placement
Condron in 2007 tested how social class/ race matter for ability tracking: SES and Race-> skills group placement -> Teachers' evaluations of social and academic behavior
Gender and Education
Women forced to study traditionally women subjects.
In 2005, data suggest that women have surpassed men in obtaining high school and college degrees and reached near parity with men in advanced degrees.
Labeling Theory on Education
Labeling approach suggest that if people are treated in particular ways, they may fulfill expectations: self-fulfilling prophecy
- Teacher-expectancy effect: impact of teacher expectation and their role on student and teacher
Racial stereotyping and teacher bias
- Social class correspondence between students and teachers
-Lableing the "bad kids"
Correlation between earnings and degree obtainment
Educational achievements do improve our life - US census data consistently indicate that those with higher educational attainment also have higher median incomes.
Stressors in teachers lives: about how many quit early in their careers?
Teachers undergo many stresses: Between a quarter and third of new teachers quit within the first three years
Why do schools matter for inequalities?
the inequalities are common for American classrooms. inequalities are experience by individuals but are the result of structural force external to those individuals. Meaning micro-inequalities result from macro-level inequalities in the larger educational and social systems.
Summer Learning Gap
the 2-3 months off from school when children's ability begins to lag -> inequalities by race/class emerge
No Child Left Behind Act
Establish in 2002, established to insure that students would learn the basics. AYP ( adequate yearly progress) would be entered and schools would enter a probationary status.
Closing schools means a loss of jobs and overcrowding of surrounding schools; as a result, nearly schools begin to fail at making AYP
Race to the Top
Provided a platform for states to complete for federal funds education by innovating teaching.
- Rigorous adoption of new K-12 Standards
-Test scores still matter; shifting more weight to teachers
-Increase emphasis on charter schools.
The Charter School Movement
emerged as an answer to federal/state models of education .
Experimental schools developed and managed by individuals, groups of parents, or educational management organizations
Compete with public schools for resources and space
Must have equal opportunity-students go through lottery
Form of culture consisting of shared beliefs, values, norms, and material conditions that create common identity among group. Beliefs takes form of ritualized practices. Provides feeling that life's ultimately meaningful
How much does the world identifies with some religion

Change in religious values in American Society
Christianity is largest and Islam is 2nd.
in 1900, 1.3% of American were nonreligious Today that number is 16%
Durkheim and religon
Religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things.
- distinguishing between the sacred and profane
Profane: the ordinary and common place
Sacred: element beyond everyday life that inspire awe,respect and even fear.
- viewed religion as an integrative force in human society-religious bonds bring diverse fold together
Functions of Religion
Manifest Function: the stated goals of an instition
- Religion defines the spiritual world and give meaning to the divine
Latent Function: the unintended or convert functions of an institution
- might include provide a meeting ground for unmarried folks
Social cohesion
Social control
Liberation theology:
church should be used in political efforts to eliminate poverty, discrimination, and other forms of injustice
Karl Marx- Religion
Religion social change. Religion drugged masses into submission by offering consolation for harsh lives on earth.
Feminist view of religion
Stresses the fundamental role women play in religious socialization. Women generally take subordinate role in religious governance. Woman are more likely to be affiliated with religion.
Social change in religion
Fluidity and Technology
Fluidity: From individual perspective, religion and spirituality are remarkably fluid
Technology: The online Church and religious based phone application
The ability to exercise one's will over others.
- Force: actual or threat of coercion
Influence: exercise of power though persuasion
Authority: institutionalized power recognized by subordinates

- Three types of power:
- Traditional authority: Legitimate power conferred by custom and accepted practice
-Rational- legal authority: power made by law
- Charismatic authority: power made legitimate by leader's exceptional personal or emotional appeal to her has his followers
Changes in voter turnout and why American do not vote
Changer: Early Voting, Absentee/ Mail-in, Motor Voter
Social Change
It is the task of sociology to understand the connections between large social change, individual life, and collective behavior
Agricultural Revolution
Made it possible for people to settle into one place
Industrial revolution
Altered people's consumption and production habits; growth of cities
Information Revolution
Ongoing revolution of economic shifting from production t information technology
Auguste Comte
Societies will move from mythology to scientific thinking
Emile Durkheim
Societies will move from mechanical to organic solidarity as division of labor and power relations become more complex
Herbert Spencer
Social Darwinism; society evolves and the fittest will survive
Conflict Theory (Marx)
Marxist view of social change appeals to people because it does not restrict people to passive roles
Marx agreed with an evolutionary take on society . But did not view each stage as inevitably better than the last.
Functionalist Theory of social change
Differentiation: increasing the complexity of social organization
Adaptive Upgrading: Institutions become more specialized
Inclusion: the expansion of institutions to include previous left out groups (usually race/ class/ gender)
Value Generalization: The development of new values that tolerate and legitimate the new range of activities
Sociology of the Family
A social institution present in every society that is defined by blood-ties, kinship, and libing situation
Nuclear family
traditional family structure of two married parents living together with their unmarried children. Has generally declined since 1940 (84% in 1940 and 50% in 2010)
Extended Fmaily
Family structure where other relatives live with the nuclear family
Partners living together without getting married ( on the rise)