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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
achieved status
a status that individuals secure on the basis of choice and competition
aggregate
a collection of anonymous individual who are in one place as the same time
ascribed status
a status assigned to an individual by a group or society
category
a collection of people who share a characteristic that is deemed to be of social significance
counterculture
a subculture whose norms and values are substantially at odds with those of the larger society
cultural relativism
a value-free or neutral approach that views the behaviors of a people from the perspective of their own culture
cultural universals
patterned and recurrent aspects of life that appear in all known societies
culture
the social heritage of a people; thise learned patterns for thinking, feeling, and acting that are transmitted form one generation to the next, including the embodiment of these patterns in material items
duties
the actions that others can legitimately insist that we perform
ethnocentrism
the tendency to judge the behavior of other groups by the standards of one's own culture
folkways
norms people do not deem to be of great importance and to which the exact less stringent conformity
group
two or more people who share a feeling of unity and who are bound together in relatively stable patterns of social interaction
institutions
the principal instruments whereby the essential tasks of living are organized, directed, and executed
language
a socially structured system of sound patterns (words and sentences) with specific and arbitrary meaning
laws
rules that are enforced by a special political organization composed of individuals who enjoy the right to use force
master status
a key or core status that carries primary weight in a person's interactions and relationships with others
mores
norms to which people attach a good deal of importance an exact strict conformity.
norms
social rules that specify appropriate and inappropriate behavior in given situation
rights
actions that we can legitimately insist that others perform
role
a set of expectations (rights and duties) that define the behavior people view as appropriate and inappropriate for the occupant of a status
role conflict
the situation in which individuals are confronted with conflicting expectations stemming from their simultaneous occupancies of two or more statues
role performance
the actual behavior of the person who occupies a status
role set
the multiple roles associated with a single status
role strain
the situation which individuals find the expectation of a single role incompatible, so that they have difficulty performing the role
social structure
the interweaving of people's interactions and relationships in more or less recurrent and stable patterns
society
a group of people who live within the same territory and share common culture
status
a position within a group or society; a location in a social structure
subculture
a group whose members participate in the main culture of a society while simultaneously sharing a number of unique values, norms, traditions, and lifestyles
symbols
acts or objects that have come to be socially accepted as standing for something else
values
broad idea regarding what is desirable, correct and good that most members of a society share