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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Taking on for ourselves the behaviors, emotional displays, and facial expressions of others
Chameleon effect
People mimic others non-consciously, automatically copying others behaviors even without realizing it
Social norms
Usually unwritten guidelines for how to behave in social contexts
Social loafing
When an individual puts less effort into working on a task with others
Social facilitation
When ones performance is affected by the presence of others
The stifling of diversity that occurs when individuals are not able to express their true perspectives, instead having to focus on agreeing with others and maintaining harmony
Normative influence
A social pressure to adapt to a groups perspective in order to be accepted rather than rejected by a group
Informational influence
When people internalize the values and belief of the group coming the believe the same things and feel the same way themselves
Bystander effect
The presence of other people actually reduces the likelihood of helpful behavior
Diffusion of responsibility
When responsibility for taking action is spread across more than one person, thus making no single individual feel responsible
Pluralistic ignorance
Occurs when there is a disjunction between the private beliefs of individuals and the public behavior they display to others
Explicit processes
Correspond roughly to “conscious” thought, they are effortful, relatively slow and generally under our intentional control
Implicit processes
Comprise our “unconscious” thought; they are intuitive, effortless, very fast and operate largely outside our intentional control
Dual-process models
Models of behavior that account for both implicit and explicit processes
Person perception
The processes by which individuals categorize and form judgments about other people
Self-fulfilling processes
Occur when a first impression/expectation affects one behavior and then that affects other peoples behaviors leading to “confirm” the initial impression or expectation
False consensus effect
The tendency to project the self-concept onto the social world
Naïve realism
We tend to assume that the way we see things are the way they are
Self-serving biases
Biased ways of processing self-relevant information to enhance our positive self-evaluation
Internal attribution
The observer explains the behavior of the actor in terms of some innate quality of that person
External attributions
The observer explains the actors behavior as a result of the situation
Fundamental attribution error (FAE)
The tendency to over emphasize internal attributions and under emphasize external factors
Groups we feel positively toward and identify with
“Other” groups that we don’t identify with
Ingroup bias
As positive biases toward the self get extended to include ones ingroups, people become motivated to see their ingroups as superior to their outgroups
Minimal group paradigm
The ease by which people form groups “us vs. them” using criteria that are essentially meaningless
A cognitive structure, a set of beliefs, about the characteristics that are held by members of a specific social group; these beliefs function as schemas, serving to guide how we process information about our social world
An affective, emotionally driven process, including negative attitudes toward and critical judgments of other groups
Behavior that disfavors or disadvantages members of a certain group in some way
Contact hypothesis
Predicts that social contact between members of different groups is extremely important in overcoming prejudice
Implicit associations test (IAT)
Measures how fast people can respond to images or words flashed on a computer screen
Elaboration likelihood model
When audiences are sufficiently motivated to pay attention to a message and they have an opportunity for careful processing, they will be persuaded by facts of the argument. When either of the two factors are missing they will be persuaded by other factors
Central route to persuasion
Occurs when people pay close attention to the content of a message, evaluate the evidence presented and examine the logic of arguments
Peripheral route to persuasion
Persuasion will depend n other features that are not directly related the message itself, such as the attractiveness of the person delivering the message
Construal-level theory
Describes how information affects us differently depending on our physiological distance from the information
Identifiable victim effect
Describes how people are more powerfully moved to action by the story of a single suffering person, than by information about a whole group of people
Experiential system
Operates more implicitly, quickly and intuitively, and is predominantly emotional
Analytic system
Operates more at the explicit level of consciousness, is slower and more methodical, and uses logic and discursive thinking
Attitude inoculation
A strategy for strengthening attitudes and making them more resistant to change by first exposing people to a weak counter-argument and then refuting that argument
Processing fluency
The ease with which information is processed
Door-in-the-face technique
Involves asking for something relatively big, then following with a request for something relatively small
Foot-in-the-door technique
Involves making a simple request followed by a more substantial request
Cognitive dissonance theory
When we hold inconsistent beliefs, this creates a kind of aversive inner tension, or dissonance; we are then motivated to reduce this tension in whatever way we can