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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the levels of reflexivity?
1) Our position in society
2) Our education
3) Must be historical
What two European countries gave birth to the system of racial classification we know today?
England and Spain
Since new trading routes and economic partnerships were being sought to satisfy Europe's growing capitalist enterprise, expeditions began to set off for new corners of the globe. This so-called ___ commenced as Spanish and Portuguese explorers traveled south to Africa and east to Indochina.
Age of Discovery
In 15th century Spain, we can witness, in embryonic form, what we now call __. A brand new identity was being fashioned, one based not on religion, family, or trade but on national affiliation.
Nationalism
As Europe's political landscape was undergoing massive reorganization, so, too, was its economic system. __ was on the march.
Capitalism
People began to reject superstition and myth. They began to explain the world, not in terms of magical or religious forces but in terms of rational forms of though. Sociologists call this the __. This was the age of great intellectual revolutions in science, economics, political theory, philosophy, religion, and art.
Disenchantment of the World
__ refers to the historical era marked by the rise of nations and nationalism, the development of capitalism, global expansion and the European discovery of "the New World," the disenchantment of the world, and rapid growth of scientific knowledge.
Modernity
__ occurs when a foreign power invades a territory and establishes enduring systems of exploitation and domination over that territory's indigenous populations.
Colonialism
__ were the first to colonize the Americas.
The Spaniards
One of the most famous explorers was __. In 1519, he led a band of __, mercenary soldiers licensed by the Spanish Crown to capture the lands and riches of the New World, as well as the souls of its inhabitants.
Hernan Cortes; conquistadors
The English creation of "the Indian" was accomplished in what two major steps?
Homogenization and polarization.
After the first major outbreak of violence against Native Americans in 1622, a flood of violence unleashed against North America's indigenous population. Historians call this violence the __. The end would not come until 350 years later in the Wounded Knee Massacre.
Indian Wars
Laborers who were bound to an employer for a fixed amount of time, after which they were freed.
Indentured servants
English settlers needed indentured servants ("exploitable people") to exploit the resources of America. Where did these people come from? (6)
1) Individuals who had bartered their passage to America in exchange for years of labor
2) Ex-prisoners who had been released from English jails
3) Impoverished English men, women, and children, kidnapped from the streets of London and Liverpool
4) Native Americans, stolen from their tribal homelands
5) Africans brought to America by the slave trade
6) Hundreds were the "savage Irish," conquered in war and sold through the "Irish slave trade" into bondage.
By the 1620s, a __, comprising dozens of large settlements organized around agricultural production for profit and reliant on coerced labor, had been set up.
Plantation system
As colonization pushed forward, the demand for servants increased and conditions under which they toiled grew harsher. Indentured servitude in America steadily evolved into __.
Slavery
As poor whites gained their freedom, enslaved blacks descended into a state of permanent __: Africans were treated as any other piece of property, bought and sold at owners' discretion.
Chattel slavery
Black slavery would become __ (meaning it would be incorporated into American society as a formalized and normalized establishment) through a series of social and legal changes that took place between 1660 and 1860.
Institutionalized
Africans were brought to America through the __, an economic system that relied on transporting kidnapped Africans from their homeland to the Americas.
Atlantic slave trade
The voyage from the west coast of Africa to America, across the Atlantic, was called the __.
Middle Passage
The white group of laborers, while they received a low wage, were compensated in part by a sort of public and __.
Psychological wage
During slavery, blacks in bondage soon came to be regulated under a set of laws called __, which denied blacks citizenship and governed even the most intimate spheres of their lives.
Slave codes
Since its inception, blackness always has been defined through the __, which renders "black" anyone with any amount, no matter how miniscule, of African blood.
One-drop rule
Sometimes, slaves' resistance was not so subtle. Dozens of __ took place over the course of American slavery.
Slave rebellions
Since the beginning days of American slavery, whites and blacks, together, called for its abolition, thus earning the name __.
Abolitionists
Recognizing the slaves' poverty, and eager to punish the South, William Sherman issued a decree in January 1865 that allotted forty acres of land to recently freed heads of households as well as to slaves who had fought in the Union army. This policy came to be known as __ and was the nation's first and only attempt at offering reparations for slavery.
Forty Acres and a Mule
The period from 1863 to 1877 is known as __, a time when the nation put itself back together, reincorporating the Southern states and reinventing American citizenry, white and black alike.
Reconstruction
Immediately after the fall of slavery, Southern states began implementing __, variants of slave codes that restricted the rights of newly freed blacks.
Black codes
The __ came in 1868 and extended citizenship rights to blacks.
Fourteenth Amendment
The __ came in 1870 and gave black men the right to vote.
Fifteenth Amendment
As Reconstruction came to a close, the era of __ segregation began in earnest. The term became associated with strict racial segregation reinforced under the terms of law.
Jim Crow
__ ruled that racial segregation was constitutional, since black and white facilities were "separate but equal."
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
President Monroe recognized Mexican independence, becoming the first world leader to do so, and announced that the Americas would not be considered for future colonization by European powers. This declaration became known as the __.
Monroe Doctrine
The Monroe Doctrine simultaneously outlawed the European conquest of Latin America and invited the American conquest of that land.
Manifest Destiny
Mexico was defeated by the U.S. in 1848, and, through the __, the U.S acquired land that today is New Mexico, California, Utah, Nevada, parts of Arizona, and disputed areas of Texas.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Two strategies for acquiring tribal land, for solving "the Indian problem," were put forth:
Assimilation (required the dashing out of indigenous ways of life) and Removal (meant that tribes would be kicked off their land at gunpoint)
A series of harsh laws, passed between 1830 and 1890 and enforced by military action, created what was called __, or land allotted by the U.S. government for tribal use.
Indian Territory
The __, signed into law by President Andrew Jackson, permitted the forcible removal of Native Americans occupying fertile lands east of the Mississippi River.
Indian Removal Act of 1830
__ dissolved tribal landholding by allotting certain pieces of land to individual Indians residing on reservations.
The Indian Allotment Act
The term__ is a European invention, a kind of racial shorthand that subsumes under a single homogenizing category the peoples of China, Japan, Korea, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Burma, Hawaii, etc.
Asian
Between 1886 and 1935, some 13 million immigrants from countries such as Austria, Hungary, Italy, and Russia flocked to America. They were called __.
"New immigrants"
Between the European discovery of America and the early twentieth century, new __-collections of ideas about race the were developed by secular authorities such as philosophers, writers, and scientists-rose to prominence and helped to form classification systems riveted in white supremacy.
Racial discourses
Of all the secular authorities, the group that proved most influential in solidifying racial taxonomies was the __, who were interested in classifying so-called people groups.
Natural historians
__ refers to a program that would ensure genetic purity.
Eugenics
Herbert Blumer's ___ hypothesizes that interpersonal racism will increase in one group the more it feels threatened by another.
Theory of Social Position
Today, 1 in 40 people claim ___, that is, to belong to two or more racial groups.
Multiracial heritage
__ and __ have the highest proportion of people identifying as biracial or multiracial.
Asians and Latinos