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220 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When thinking rationally and deeply about crime, we must do three things.
1) Resisting prepackaged assumptions, statements, and beliefs commonly attached to issues of illegal behavior and punishment

2) Rethinking the very essence of crime and evaluating why, although many things inflict harm, only some are outlawed.

3) Evaluating and denaturalizing the way we fight crime; uncovering how society's problems are embedded in the legal field.
A primary solution to lawbreaking (a natural and obvious approach) was __. But this approach may be the least effective.
"Getting tough on crime"
The phrase __ suggests that the legal field is somehow detached from normal society, that it floats above society's prejudices.
"Justice is blind"
Early conceptions and practices of justice, crime, and punishment were formed under conditions of __ and __.
colonialism and slavery
After the fall of slavery, two juridical institutions arose to control and confine nonwhites.
Lynch mobs and prisons
Institutions having to do with the creation of laws and the meting out of punishment
Juridical institutions
A juridical institution that sometimes operated in cahoots with local law enforcement and other times simply overpowered sheriff's deputies.
Lynch mob
Between 1880 and 1930, lynch mobs murdered over __ black men, women, and children that we know of.
White public argued that lynching "kept white women safe from the __."
black male rapist
__ were used as a pretext for lashing out at black men.
White women's bodies
The lynch mob upheld __ by letting blacks know they could not find refuge in the law. And it upheld __ by cultivating within white women a dread of the black male rapist, a dread that increased white women's dependency on their white male protectors.
white supremacy; white patriarchy
A juridical institution that arose after emancipation.
__ were adopted in state after state after the Civil War. These laws outlawed begging and loitering. They transformed the poor into the criminal.
Vagabond laws
To meet labor shortages and to uphold an economic system built on racial domination, southern prisons introduced __ programs, which forced prisoners to work for no pay.
convict leasing
The rapid expansion of American incarceration, which began in the early 1970s and continues today, can be described as a __.
prison boom
From 1970 to 2003, the number of state and federal prisons grew __.
Today's prison population is over __ and for the first time in U.S. history has more than _ in 100 adults behind bars.
2 million; 1 in 100
Between 1977 and 2004, the number of women behind bars made a __% increase.
According to recent research, __ today are the fastest-growing segment of the prison population.
Hispanic men are __ times more likely than white men to be in prison.

Black men are nearly __ times more likely than white men to be in prison.
3 (Hispanic)

8 (Black)
A white man born after the Civil Rights Movement who later dropped out of high school had a __% chance of doing time.

A black man born after the Civil Rights Movement who later dropped out of high school had a __ chance of being locked up.
11% (white)

60% (black)
A white man born after WWII and later dropped out of high school had a __% chance of serving time in prison. However, a white man born after the Civil Rights Movement who later dropped out of high school had a __% chance of doing time.

A black man born after WWII who later dropped out of high school had a __% chance of serving time in prison, whereas a black man born after the Civil Rights Movement who later dropped out of high school had nothing short of a __% chance of being locked up at some point in his life.

Although violent crimes fell between 1990 and 2001, the chances a suspect would be arrested for a violent crime __ during that decade.
Several changes put into effect to harshen criminal sentencing:
Drug arrests; Parole was limited severely or abolished entirely; mandatory minimum sentences were enforced; drug arrests; three-strikes laws.
__ intensified punishment for repeat offenses, with many such laws imposing a life sentence for the third offense.
Three-strikes laws
Although violent crime __ between 1990 and 2001, the chances a suspect would be arrested for a violent crime __ during that decade.
fell; doubled
Between 1965 and 2001, drug arrests __, hitting __ and __ men especially hard.
quadrupled, black and Puerto Rican
In the 1970s, black men were __ as likely to be arrested on drug offenses as white men.
Between 1979 and 2000, drug use among young adults declined by __%, and, according to surveys of high school seniors, white students during this time reported using __ drugs than black students.
10%; more
__ launched a "__" to protect Americans from those who "increasingly threaten our cities, our homes, and our lives."
Richard Nixon; "war on crime"
__ initiated a "__," introducing harsher penalties for those found guilty of possessing and selling drugs.
Ronald Reagan; "war on drugs"
__ won the White House after exposing his opponent, __, as "soft on crime," marshalling the __ case to drive home his point.
George H.W. Bush; Michael Dukakis; Willie Horton
States with the steepest growth in prison populations and the sharpest decreases in social welfare spending were governed by __.
An exaggerated way of thinking that relies on two paired opposites, in this case "tough on crime" versus "soft on crime."
Bipolar discursive frame
Today, over __ the states rely on for-profit prisons, where roughly __ inmates are housed each year.
half; 90,000
Pointing to the uneasy alliance between government and private industry, analysts have coined the term __. It is a set of bureaucratic, political, and economic interests that encourage increased spending on imprisonment, regardless of the actual need.
"prison-industrial complex"
American taxpayers spend __ each year on corrections.
$35 billion
Entire prisons are now operated by __.
private companies
More than any other set of policies, those introduced by the __ helped to feed the prison-industrial complex, bring about the prison boom, and wreak devastation on African-American communities.
war on drugs
Between 1981 and 2001, national drug control spending increased from less than __ to over __.
$2 billion to over $18 billion
Law enforcement officers targeted __ neighborhoods because there drug transactions often took place in public and were easier to spot.
2 questions: Why did Republican politicians focus on crime as the main problem plaguing America when most Americans did not view it as a major problem? and Why did the focus on crime resonate with so many Americans once it was introduced? The answer lies in __.
white backlash against the Civil Rights Movement
Many __ began as a response to police brutality and unfair treatment, and the police responded in kind.
racial uprisings
To suppress the uprisings, law enforcement officers began to treat poor, black communities as __, subjecting those neighborhoods to a high level of surveillance.
"danger zones"
Although crime rates fell during the 1990s, __ out of __ Americans believed they were rising. And although drug use __ among high school students during that decade, most Americans listed drugs as the greatest danger threatening the country's youth.
6 out of 10; dropped
Today, __% of Americans feel that current sentencing guidelines do not deal "harshly enough with criminals," and __% feel that the country should spend more money on the crime problem.
85%; 70%
Besides historical forces, what else explains racialized fears?
The media
Between 1990 and 1998, America's murder rate fell by __%, but one wouldn't have known this by watching the news, for during this time, the number of stories about murder airing on network newscasts increased by __%.
20%; 600%
Although __ are far more likely to be victims of murder than other groups are, often the media portrayed __ only as perpetrators of violence, focusing a disproportionate amount of attention on __ victims.
young black men; young black men; white and female
The vast majority of school shootings in the U.S. are carried out by __. But after the Virginia Tech shootings, some Americans focused on the shooter's immigrant status.
young white men
__% of Americans believe that immigrants are "somewhat" or "very likely" to increase crime.
Politicians have recently fashioned an __, intensifying anti-immigrant sentiment that disproportionately targets those from Latin America, Asian, and Middle Eastern countries.
"immigration problem"
The __ broadened the list of criminal acts that warranted deportation for noncitizens.
1996 Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act
The __ denied even legal immigrants from many public benefits.
1996 Welfare Reform Act
The __ denied noncitizens many basic civil rights.
2001 Patriot Act
Social-scientific research has found that immigrants make America __.
Despite their high levels of poverty, many immigrant communities in large cities have incredibly __ crime rates.
Recent studies have concluded that youth of __ descent commit far less violent crime than do __ or __ youth.
Mexican; white or black youth
One study found that first-generation immigrants were __% less likely to participate in a violent crime than were third-generation Americans.
As immigration rates soared during the 1990s, crime rates __.
To explain why immigrants commit so little crime, sociologists have pointed to their high rates of __ and the presence of __ in immigrant neighbors, as both factors __ associated with crime.
marriage; professionals; negatively
Sociologists have observed that immigrant neighborhoods often operate under a code of __, which encourages neighbors to watch out for one another and to be mindful of criminal activity.
informal social control
__ generation immigrants are more likely to commit crimes than __ generation immigrants; and __ generation immigrants are more likely to do so than __ generation immigrants.
second; first; third; second
For those concerned with America's crime rate, the problem seems to be the successful __ of second and third generation immigrants.
Most first-generation immigrants have a __ incarceration rate than whites born in the U.S.; however the opposite is true for second-generation immigrants.
In 2001, the FBI reported crimes directed at Muslims increased __, while Arab groups registered over __ events where Americans lashed out at "Arab-looking" people after September 11.
seventeen-fold; 2000 events
In the nine weeks after Sept 11, over __ violent attacks directed at Arab Americans took place.
Today, the average American is __ likely to harbor anti-American prejudices than in 2001.
In the 9 months following Sept 11, one antidiscrimination group documented over __ cases of Arab Americans being illegally removed from planes after boarding but before take off.
Responding to calls of unfair treatment, the Department of Homeland Security enabled __, an initiative that allows travelers to record their grievances. It received __ to __ complaints each week, many from Arab Americans.
The Traveler Redress Inquiry Program (TRIP); 600-800 complaints
According to recent surveys, __% of Americans believe that immigration from Arab countries should be restricted, and __% feel that the government "should have more power to monitor Muslims legally living in the U.S. than it has to monitor other religious groups."
75; 40%
__ out of __ Americans believes that the U.S. should subject Arab Americans to special surveillance; and __ out of __ believes that Arabs should carry special identification cards.
One out of three; One out of two
The combined forms of enterprise classified as criminal under current law can be said to constitute the __.
underground economy
By some estimates, each year __ out of __ Americans buy something trough the underground economy, which employs somewhere between __ and __% of the U.S. labor force.
four out of five; between 15 and 25%
The largest and highest yielding industry within the underground economy is the __.
drug trade
It is estimated that illegal drugs account for __% of worldwide trade, grossing between __ and __ every year.
8%; grossing between $300 and $400 billion
According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, in 2006, __ Americans over the age of 12 used drugs each month Of those, __% only smoke marijuana.
20 million; 72%
__ had the highest rates of drug use. __ and __ had the second highest rate followed by __ and __.
American Indians had highest rate. Whites and blacks had the second highest rate followed by Hispanics and Asians.
Many Americans associate drug trafficking with __, the members of which are vital players in the underground economy.
urban street gangs
Illegal entrepreneurship found in affluent communities and wealthy corporations are referred to as __.
white-collar crime
Most white collar crimes are committed by __.
middle-class citizens
Relative to those who participate in street-level criminal behavior, white-collar criminals are __ times more likely to have steady employment, __ times more likely to own a home, and __ times more likely to have more than $10,000 in assets.
three times; five times; eight times
White-collar crime has __ over the last 30 years.
It is estimated that the white-collar crime industry grosses around __ each year, for outpacing revenue gleaned from America's street crime.
$300 billion
Most people arrested for white-collar crimes are __.
Americans are __ times more likely to die of occupational hazards than of homicide.
Every hour, __ Americans will be killed by a murder, whereas __ will be slain by their job.
two killed by a murderer, three killed by their job
A form of social organization in which the dynamics of the market are given priority over other concerns.
Violence against __ is one of our nations' most pervasive crimes.
Every __, a woman is beaten by her boyfriend or husband, making domestic abuse among America's most common acts of violence.
15 seconds
Between _ and _ women are abused by their partners each year.
2 and 6 million
Every day, __ women are killed by their husbands or boyfriends.
According to the U.S. Department of Justice, over __ women are raped each day.
As many as __ sexual assaults are not reported to the police.
__ women are especially at risk, with __% of all rapes taking place __(where).
college; 25%; college campuses
A woman's risk of partner abuse __ the more __ she is from the wider society.
increased; isolated
In many cases, when a black man is charged with violating a black woman, members of the black community rally around the black man under __ or __, drowning out the lone voice of the victim with shouts decrying racial biases in the criminal justice system.
"racial solidarity" or "black protectionism"
Bodies of women of color have been cheapened by __ and __.
racial domination and masculine domination
Violence afflicted on black women's bodies has been __.
Between __ and __ Americans are murdered each year.
16,000 and 17,000
Black youth are __ times more likely to be murdered than white youth and __ more likely than Hispanic youth.
14 times; 3.5 times
Many fear that __ is directly linked to murder rates.
violence in the media
By the age of 18, the average American has viewed over __ murders acted out on t.v.
Americans own roughly __ guns and have more guns stolen each year than many other industrialized countries have gun owners.
a quarter of a billion guns (25,000,000?)
__% of victims are killed by a single gunshot.
__ refers to the connected accumulation of overlapping and mutually reinforcing social problems in a single residential area (jobless adults, poor schools, single-parent households, high degrees of social isolation, racial segregation, chronic poverty)
Structural disadvantage
__ can effectively attenuate violent crime by ensuring that little problems do not boil up into bigger ones and by encouraging neighbors to look out for one another.
Informal social control
Researchers have observed that poor black inner-city dwellers often are isolated from one another, primarily because of a widespread fear of __.
Black youth living in poor inner-city neighborhoods operate under a __, which requires them to present themselves as aggressive, hard menaces who are not to be trifled with and who, at a second's notice will "act a fool" and resort to violence.
"code of the street"
Using a "code of the street" seems to breed only violence and to reproduce the conditions of their own domination (example of __).
symbolic violence
Research shows that social problems related to homicide are rooted in enduring systems of domination: notably, __ and __.
economic marginality and racial segregation
__ blacks in 100 are arrested annually, whereas only __ whites in 100 are. In Wisconsin, only _ whites out of 100 are arrested each year, but __ blacks out of 100.
13 blacks; 5 whites

6 whites; 41 blacks
One study found that whits are __ times less likely than blacks, and __ times less likely than Hispanics, to be stopped by the police.
6 times; 4 times
African Americans have grown so used to being pulled over by police that many refer to being stopped on account of __.
DWB: "Driving While Black"
Between 1941 and 1996, __ black undercover police officers have been shot and killed by their white colleagues; however, no undercover white officer during those 55 years has been gunned down by a black cop.
Most arrested for possessing or distributing __ are black; whites and Latinos make up the majority of those arrested for possessing or selling __. (There is a harsher sentence for __ than __)
crack; powdered cocaine.
(harsher sentence for crack cocaine than powdered)
__% of black repeat offenders, but only __% of white repeat offenders, were put away for life.
15% black; 3% white
Blacks arrested for aggravated assaults are jailed nearly __ longer than whites arrested for the exact same offense.
one third
Blacks are more likely to be sentenced to death than whites. People accused of killing whites are __ times more likely to receive the death sentence than those accused of killing blacks.
The fact that many whits view the criminal justice system as unbiased and fair reflects their __.
racial privilege
Negative psychological effects of incarceration (2)
powerful effects on one's mental state; solitary confinement as "no-touch torture"
If they survive prison, offenders are met with a whole host of problems once they are released (6)
political consequences; economic costs; little hope of gaining job skills and diminished connections; denied many social services; chronic poverty; reproduces the racial order
One study found that a criminal record reduced one's chances of landing a job by __ to __%
Incarceration results in __% reduction in hourly wage rates. An ex-convict earns __ to __% less each year than a person with the same job skills and education.
15%; 30-40%
The __ can be understood as one of America's premier "race making" institutions.
Do prisons decrease crime? No. The prison boom only accounts for __to__% of the crime drop.
2% to 5%
If prisons are to have a __, someone contemplating a crime must weigh the rewards of the crime against the punishment and degree against committing the crime specifically because the punishment outweighs the reward.
deterrent effect
Incarceration contributes to the reproduction of __ (4)
social marginality, racialized poverty, fractured families, and high crime rates.
Harvard President, Drew Gilpin Faust declared, "__ is the engine that makes American __ work."
Education; democracy
Alexis de Tocqueville wrote, "The first duty imposed on those who now direct society is to __ __...A new__ __ is needed for a world itself quite new."
educate democracy; political science
When a despotic government overthrows a democratic state, one of its first acts is to close the doors of __.
the university
__ arrives only on the back of education.
At the beginning of the __ century, whites sought new ways to "civilize"-that is, to __- America's indigenous people.
20th century; Anglicize
__ would become a primary civilizing machine.
A boarding school's primary objective was __ (2)
1) To strip American Indian students of all their Indianness
2) To force them to assimilate into Anglo-American society and culture through strict, military-style discipline.
American Indian students were taught, day after day, that their way of life, and that of their parents and grandparents, was __.
An important motto behind the movement to Anglicize American Indians and to establish boarding schools was: "__"
"Kill the Indian...Save the man."
__'s report caught the government's attention, and things began to change in Indian boarding schools.
Lewis Meriam's
In 1933, __, a white man, became the Commissioner on Indian Affairs and began reforming Indian education.
John Collier
American Indians did not regain full control over the education of their children until __.
the Civil Rights Era
In 1966, the first Indian-controlled school was established on the __ Reservation, and three years later the first tribal college, __, was founded.
Navajo; Navajo Community College
In 1879l __ founded a boarding school for Indian children in Carlisle, PA.
Richard Pratt
Initial goal of boarding school (4)
1) Full immersion in European culture
2) Elimination of native culture
3) Teaching of marketable vocational skills
4) Promotion of Christianity
While American Indians were being forced to conform to white society at beginning of 20th century, __ were being forcefully excluded from it.
African Americans
Whites worked to deny blacks' education for at least two reasons:
1) Whites knew that if blacks were granted access to the world of learning, it would be difficult to exploit them as a cheap labor source. "Educate a nigger and you spoil a good field hand."
2. If blacks were educated, whites would incur a symbolic cost. Whites (especially poor whites) who constantly sought ways to distinguish themselves from blacks, understood that education was "the great equalizer."
Recognizing the precarious state of black education, an African American reformer by the name of __ offered whites a compromise. In 1895 he delivered his __.
Booker T. Washington; Atlanta Compromise
In the Atlanta Compromise, Washington made two concessions:
1) Allowing blacks full access to political power (the fundamental idea of Reconstruction) had been a mistake
2. Blacks did not strive to be equal to whites. He advised blacks to dedicate themselves to working hard instead of fighting for equal rights. In turn, he asked whites to treat blacks fairly. He said races were to be separate but cooperative.
Who said, "In all things that are purely social we can be as separate as the fingers, yet as one hand in all things essential to mutual progress." ?
Booker T. Washington
Who said, "The first duty imposed on those who now direct society is to educate democracy... A new political science is needed for a world itself quite new." ?
Alexis de Tocqueville
Who said, "Education is the engine that makes American democracy work." ?
Harvard President Drew Gilpin Faust
Who said, "To be free, the individual must become more rationally aware." ? --book adds that to become more rationally aware, the individual must be educated.
C. Wright Mills
Whites rewarded Washington by providing him with philanthropic support and political backing necessary to institute his program of __, which he did in earnest at __, an all-black school he founded in 1880.
"industrial education"; Tuskegee Institute
Washington believed that the solution to "the race problem" was for blacks to:
accept their dominated position and to work hard in jobs reserved for them.
Who said, "I freely acknowledge that it is possible, and sometimes best, that a a partially underdeveloped people should be ruled by the best of their stronger and better neighbors for their own good." ?
W.E.B. Du Bois
Du Bois chastised Washington for perpetuating a kind of __, for failing to criticize white supremacy.
symbolic violence
Du Bois believed that the brightest and most talented members of the race- ___, he liked to call them- should educate themselves in order to uplift all blacks.
"The Talented Tenth"
The state of black education at the beginning of the 20th century was defined by 2 opposing camps championed by two powerful leaders.
Industrial education (Booker T. Washington) and Equal education (W.E.B. Du Bois)
Who said, "Education is the kindling of a flame." ?
Beginning in the 1930s, __ launched an aggressive campaign against legalized segregation.
Led by a forward-thinking and sharp-minded lawyer named __, the NAACP won several legal victories.
Thurgood Marshall
In the 1936 case __, Marshall successfully argued that the University of Maryland School of Law's practice of turning away black applications was unconstitutional and that black law schools did not offer the same resources as white ones.
Murray v. Maryland
In 1950, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the NAACP in __, finding striking inequalities between the all-white University of Texas School of Law and the law schools in Texas reserved for African Americans.
Sweat v. Painter
In 1945, the League of United Latin American Citizens came to the aid of five families who, in __, challenged the segregation of Mexican-American students in California.
Mendez v. Westminster School District
Mendez v. Westminster allowed Earl Warren (governor of California) to sign into law a bill repealing __
the segregation of all students in the state (including African and Asian Americans).
The NAACP filed several lawsuits on behalf of black parents, whose children were denied entry to white schools throughout the country. In 1952, the Supreme Court agreed to hear five of these cases titled, __. The NAACP marshaled an impressive array of social-scientific evidence challenging the "equal" pillar of the "separate but equal" doctrine. Court ruled on behalf of NAACP, dismantling the legal basis of racial segregation.
Brown v. Board of Education
Southern whites mounted a defiant backlash against school desegregation. They formed __ in town after town and went on the offense.
Citizens Councils
What did Citizens Councils do? (3)
1) Tried to abolish public education outright and encouraged whites to start private, all-white institutions.
2) They initiated a set of legislative acts dealing with "public placement" which permitted racial integration in theory but made actual integration impossible
3) Lobbied state legislatures to take down the NAACP
Who said, "The phrase 'all deliberate speed' did not mean that another century should be allowed to unfold before we release the Negro children from the narrow pidgeonhole of the segregated schools; it meant that, giving some courtesy and consideration to the need for softening old attitudes and outdated customs, democracy must press ahead out of the past of ignorance and intolerance, and into the present of educational opportunity and moral freedom." ?
Martin Luther King Jr.
Nine black teenagers were selected by the NAACP to desegregate Little Rock Central High.
The Little Rock Nine
When the Little Rock Nine tried to go to the all white high school, members of the __ lined up and blocked the entrance. It wasn't until President __ provided them with an armed military escort that they could enter the school.
Arkansas Citizens Council; Eisenhower
By 1975, the percentage of all black children attending all-black schools in the south dropped to __%, and nearly __ the black children of that region were enrolled in majority-white schools.
18%; half
Operating under the __ fallacy, courts outlawed intentional school segregation but not school segregation caused by systematic racial domination operating in other realms of the social life - the residential field.
In the 1974 case, __, a divided U.S. Supreme Court ruled that racial school segregation attributed to intentional acts of discrimination was unlawful, but racial school segregation attributed to residential segregation was not.
Millikin v. Bradley
__ is racial domination normalized.
__ consider the stories and experiences of Americans of European descent central to our knowledge of American history, while marginalizing the stories and experiences of non-European Americans.
Eurocentric historical accounts
Eurocentric historical accounts do 2 things:
1) Silences the voices of nonwhites
2) Dulls the sharp edge of past injustices
How did whiteness inform the field of literature? (2)
Most literary classics were written by white authors; nonwhite characters were racially marked
How does whiteness affect anthropology?
It treats nonwhite cultures as exotic objects of study and white communities as uninteresting and normal.
How did whiteness affect progressive intellectual movements?
Feminism was a movement led by white women and overlooked how the experiences of being a woman varied across racial and class lines
What are three ways in which whiteness is normalized?
1) How whiteness informs literature
2) How whiteness informs anthropology
3) How whiteness informs intellectual movements
A survey of students at a large Midwest university discovered that __ of students of color saw race relations as a serious problem on campus, but less than __ of polled white students agreed with them.

Nationwide, __ in __ students of color report being victimized by racially motivated verbal or physical attacks sometime during their college careers.
1 in 4
Explanations that help us understand racial inequality in education: (4)
1) Economic inequality
2) Family
3) Culture
4) Schools
The sum total of one's knowledge of established and revered cultural activities and practices.
Cultural capital
A child in possession of large amounts of cultural capital has better access to the __, that collection of unspoken "values, dispositions, social and behavioral expectations...essential to satisfactory progression through school."
"hidden curriculum"
__ is the sum of all resources one accrues by virtue of being connected to a network of people.
Social capital
__ is a specific variant of social capital having to do with one's attachment to, and reliance on, family-based relationships.
__ value interdependence, as well as family support and obligations, more than any other racial or ethnic groups.
To reason that Asians get good grades because they are an especially studious lot is to commit what psychologists call the __, which discounts the importance of structural factors and explains behavior solely on the basis of individuals' personalities.
"fundamental attribution error"
When we assume that all the nonwhite groups have experienced similar histories of racial oppression and are affected in a similar way by institutional and interpersonal racism we might call this variant of the ahistorical fallacy __.
the fallacy of undifferentiating difference
__ is a fallacy that takes hold of all the extremely diverse histories and social experiences of nonwhite groups and flattens them.
the fallacy of undifferentiating difference
Certain racial groups who were brought to the U.S. against their will or were rendered "minorities" through the workings of colonialism.
Involuntary minorities
Racial groups who voluntarily migrated to the U.S.
Voluntary minorities
The distinction between __ and __ is key to understanding modern-day differences among nonwhite groups.
"involuntary" and "voluntary minorities"
Ever since the 19th century, white America has regarded its Asian inhabitants as constituting a __.
"model minority"
To think of Asian Americans in terms of the __ is to think of them, first and foremost, as whiz kids, extremely gifted in school, disciplined beyond their age, geeky and quirky, quiet and polite.
stereotype of the model minority
We must remember that there are no such things as __. There are only __, oversimplified ways of thinking that can result in harmful consequences for the people they target.
positive stereotypes; stereotypes
High school and college-aged Asian-American women have the highest __ rates of women in any racial group.
A collection of linguistic, behavioral, aesthetic, and spiritual attitudes and practices formed in direct opposition to mainstream white culture.
Oppositional culture
Being at risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group.
Stereotype threat
A stereotype threat means that a negative stereotype about your racial group makes you conscious of the fact that __
any of your actions that happen to align with that stereotype end up verifying the stereotype, making it more real in the eyes of others, and perhaps yourself
The average white student attends a school that is at least __% white, and __ out of __ Latino and African American students attend majority-nonwhite schools.
80% white; 7 out of 10
__ is one of the lowest paid professions in the U.S.
In some states, as many as __ in __ students are taught by uncertified teachers.
1 in 5
A public school serving primarily wealthy, white students has a __ in __ chance of producing consistently high standardized test scores; but one serving primarily poor, nonwhite students has about a __ in __ chance.
white- 1 in 4
nonwhite- 1 in 300
The practice of sorting students into different tracks, ostensibly according to their ability.
A typical tracking system features four tracks, which determine students' future opportunities (4).
honors/accelerated, college preparation, vocational, and remedial.
A program designed to combat racial inequality in the educational field.
Affirmative action
An umbrella term referring to a collection of policies and practices designed to dismantle institutional racism and sexism by offering people of color and women employment and education opportunities."
Affirmative action
Roughly __ in __ Ivy League students are __, children of alumni.
1 in 7; legacies
__ comes from Greek meaning "sensitive" or "to perceive or feel"- translated to English to mean "artistic" or "concerned with the appreciation of beauty or art"
DuBois Speech to the Chicago chapter of the NAACP in 1926
"Criteria for Negro Art"
To understand art and its relation to the racial order, we must subject artistic practices to a __.
Triple reading
Steps of a triple reading (3)
1) We should examine an artwork's properties in relation to other artworks in the aesthetic field (aesthetic reading)
2. We should examine an artwork's properties in relation to events and structures within society (political reading)
3. We should examine the artwork in relation to specific racial or ethnic traditions (racial reading)
The job of the sociologist is to __ the mystery and __ the multiple ways art fights for or against racial domination.
demystify; unpack
Particularly unsettling exhibits known as __ became immensely popular during the 19th and 20th centuries. In these exhibits, nonwhite people from so-called "primitive" cultures were put on display.
human zoos
Through the __, which ruled the American stage between 1830 and 1910, whites controlled the dominant image of blackness. Performed by white actors in blackface, they purported to represent authentic African-American life.
minstrel shows
Although minstrel shows died out after the early 20th century, __ -white control of the representation of blackness in particular and non-whiteness in general-carried on throughout the 20th century.
Contradictions are apparent in the __, a musical form that evolved from spirituals in the early 20th century.