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360 Cards in this Set

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UNIT A: Chemistry

X this card so when you go back to do the ones you got wrong it is still separated by unit.

Good Luck ~


Substance that produces hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water; pH lower than 7.


Physical dependence on a drug

Alkali Metals

Soft, shiny, silvery metals that are very reactive with water; Group 1 of periodic table.

Alkaline Earth Metals

Shiny, silvery metals not as soft Alkali metals; Group 2 of periodic table.


Negatively charged ion.


Smallest part of an element that still has the properties of the element.

Atomic Molar Mass

Average molar mass of an elements atoms, including those of isotopes.

Atomic Number

Number of protons in an element; Can be used to specify an element.

Avagadro's Number

Number of atoms in 1 mol; 6.02 X 10^23


Produces hydroxide ions (OH+) in water; pH greater than 7.


Substance that keeps pH nearly constant despite the addition of a small amount of acid or base.

Carbonic Acid

Weak acid produced by dissolving CO2 in water.


Positively charged ion.

Cellular Respiration

Breakdown of glucose molecules to release chemical energy a cell can use.

C6H12O2= 6CO2+6H20+ energy

Chemical Change

Change to a substance that always results in the formation of a different substance/substances.

Chemical Equation

Record of a chemical equation using chemical symbols and formulas.

Chemical Properties

Properties that describe the reactivity of a substance.

Chemical Reaction

Process that occurs when a substance/substances reacts to form different substance/substances.


Mechanical Mixture in which the suspended substance cannot be easily separated from the other substances in the mixture.


Exothermic reaction that occurs when oxygen reacts quickly with a substance to form a new substance/substances.


Chemical combination of two or more elements in a specific ratio.

Covalent Bond

Bond formed when non-metallic atoms share electrons.

Crystal Lattice

Organized array of ions.

Decomposition Reaction

Chemical Reaction in which a compound breaks apart into its elements.

Diatomic Model

(More like DIE-atomic model am I right cause this is killing me)

Molecule composed of two atoms of the same element.

Double Replacement Reaction

Chemical reaction between two ionic compounds in a solution that often results in the formation of a precipitate.


Substance that can be drawn or stretched into long wires.


Solution that conducts electricity.


Negatively charged particle in the atom that occupies energy levels around the nucleus.


Pure substances that cannot be broken down into other substances.


Energy absorbing.

Endothermic Reaction

Chemical reaction that absorbs energy.


Energy Releasing.

Exothermic Reaction

Chemical reaction that releases energy, usually in the form of heat, light or electricity.


Vertical Column in Periodic Table.


Biochemical preservation technique involving bacteria.

Formation Reaction/Synthesis Reaction

Chemical reaction in which two elements combine to form a compound.

Formula Equation

Uses the chemical formulas of reactants and products to represent a chemical reaction.

Formula Unit

Smallest amount of an ionic compound with the composition shown by the chemical formula.


Non metals in group 17 of the periodic table.

Heterogeneous Mixture

Mixture in which different substances are visible.

Homogeneous Mixture

Mixture in which different substances are not visible.


Compound that contains hydrogen and carbon. Examples: Gasoline and plastics.


Way of restating a cause and effect question so it gives a reasonable, possible answer.


Unreactive with all but the most corrosive of acids.


Electrically charged atom/group of atoms.

Ionic Bond

Type of bond formed when electrons transfer between metals and non-metals


Process of and atom gaining or losing electrons.


Atoms of the same elements containing different numbers of neutrons.

Law of Conservation of Mass

Total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products.


Substance that can be beaten or rolled into sheets without crumbling.

Manipulated Variable

Condition deliberately changed in an experiment.

Mass Number

Integer equal to the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.


Material Safety Data Sheets. Gives info on hazardous products used in a place. Identifies chemical and physical hazards.

Mechanical Mixture

Mixture in which different substances are visible.


Shiny, malleable, ductile element.


Element with properties of both metals and non-metals.


Combination of pure substances.

Molar Mass

Mass of one mole of a substance.


Quantity that chemists use to measure elements and compounds.

Molecular Element

Element that forms molecules made only of its own element.


Group of non-metallic atoms bound together by covalent bonds.


Description of a substance that is neither acidic nor basic.


Process in which acids and bases react with each other to make a single water molecule and both acid and base properties disappear.


Neutral particles in the nucleus of an atom.

Noble Gases

Extremely un-reactive non-metals. Group 18 of periodic table.


One of 27 with varying properties that are different from metals.


Subatomic particles in the nucleus of the atom. (protons and neutrons)

Nucleus (In Atoms)

Positively charged centre of the atom made up of protons an neutrons

Octet Rule

Atoms bond in such a way as to have eight electrons in the valence electron level.


Horizontal line or row in periodic table.


Power of Hydrogen. Measure of the number of hydrogen ions in a solution.


Chemical process in which carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light to form glucose and oxygen.

Physical Change

Change to a substance in which the content of the substance stays the same.

Physical Properties

Properties that describe the physical appearance and composition of a substance. ex. colour


An object that has a positive charge at one end and a negative charge at the other end; ex. water is slightly polar.

Polyatomic Ion

Charged particle made up of several non-metallic atoms joined together.


Solid with low solubility that forms from a solution.

Precipitation (in solution)

Process of forming a solid from a solution.


New substance produced in a chemical reaction.


Positively charged particle in nucleus of atom.

Pure Substance

Substance in which all particles are identical.


Substance in a chemical equation that reacts to for another substance/substances.


Substance used for identifying, measuring or producing other substances.


Process by which an organism secures oxygen from the air and then gives off C02.

Responding Variable

Condition that changes in response to the manipulated variable in the experiment.


Compound produced in a neutralization reaction between an acid and a base.


Method of drying food to preserve it.

Single Replacement Reaction

Reaction in which a single element reacts with an ionic compound.

Skeleton Equation

An unbalanced chemical equation.


Mixture in which the separate components are not visible.


Mechanical mixture in which the components are in different states.

Universal Indicator

Mixture of several indicators that indicators that changes colour as acidity changes.


Tendency of an atom to gain or lose to combine with other elements.

Valence Electron

Electron in the outermost energy level of an atom.

Valence Number

Number of electrons an element can gain or lose to combine with other elements.


Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System; System of easy to see warming symbols on hazardous materials.

UNIT B: Physics

X this card so when you go back to do the ones you got wrong it is still separated by unit.

Good Luck~


Change in velocity during a specific time interval.(m/s2) (metres per second squared).

Average Speed

Distance travelled in a specified time

Chemical Energy

Potential energy stored in the chemical bonds of compounds.

Closed System

Any system that exchanges energy with its surroundings but not matter.


Vector quantity that measure the change in distance and the change in direction or position of an object.

Distance Travelled

Scalar quantity that measures how far an object has travelled.


Ratio of useful work output to the total work input; Measurement of how effectively a machine converts energy input into useful energy output.

Elastic Potential Energy

Energy stored in an object that has its shape changed by stretching, twisting or compressing.

Electrical Energy

work done by moving charges; energy produced by moving electrons.


Ability to do work.

Energy Input

Energy used to do work.

First Law of Thermodynamics

The total energy, including heat, in a system and its surroundings remains constant.


Push or pull applied to an object; measured in newtons.

Fossil Fuels

Carbon-Based fuels formed from the remains of living organisms.

Gravitational Potential Energy

Energy of an object because of its position above the surface of earth.


Energy transferred from an object from an area of higher temperature to an area of lower temperature; thermal energy.

Heat Engine

Device that converts heat into mechanical energy.

Heat Pump

Device that uses mechanical energy to transfer heat.

Internal Combustion Engine

Device in which energy is released by burning fuel inside the engine.

Isolated System

System that cannot exchange either matter or energy with its surroundings.

Kinetic Energy

Energy of a moving object.

Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only be changed from one form to another, and the total amount of energy never changes.

Mechanical Energy

Energy due to the motion and position of an object.


The changing in position of an object relative to a reference point; an imaginary line joining the object to the reference point changes in length and direction or both.

Non-Renewable Energy Source

Energy source that is limited and cannot be replaced.

Nuclear Energy

Potential energy stored in the nucleus of an atom.

Open System

A system that exchanges both matter and energy with its surroundings.

Perfect Machine/Perpetual Motion Machine

Hypothetical machine in which all the input energy is converted completely into mechanical energy.

Potential Energy

Energy that is stored and held in readiness; Energy that has the potential to do work.

Radiant Energy

Energy that is transmitted as electromagnetic waves.

Scalar Quantity

Quantity that indicates magnitude only.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

Heat always flows naturally from a hot object to a cold object, never naturally from cold to hot.

Solar Energy

Energy from the sun; Generated by a hydrogen-hydrogen nuclear fusion reaction.


Everything outside of a system.


Description of any process that will not compromise the survival of living things or future generations while still providing for current energy needs.

Sustainable Development

The use of the world's resources in a way that maintains the resources for future generations.


A set of interconnected parts; can be classified as open, closed or isolated.

Thermal Power Station

Electrical generating station that uses thermal energy to produce steam to drive turbines; Sources of thermal energy include: coal, natural gas and nuclear energy.


Study of the interrelationships between heat, work and energy.

Uniform Motion

Movement in a straight line at a constant speed.

Useful Energy Output

Energy needed to do work.

Useful Work Output

Work that a machine is supposed to do.

Vector Quanitity

Quantity that includes magnitude (size) and direction.


Speed and direction of an object.


A measure of the amount of energy transferred from an object to another when an object moves against an opposing force or the speed of an object increases; calculated by multiplying the force acting on an object by the distance the object travels.

Unit C: Biology

X this card so when you go back to do the ones you got wrong it is still separated by unit.

Good Luck... bio has alot of words............

Active Transport

Movement of molecules from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration that requires energy fro ATP.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

Nucleotide that releases stored energy in a cell.


Tendency of unlike molecules to stick together.

Area of Elongation

An area of cells in the developing plant, facing away from the light source,that each elongate in phototropic response to the light stimulus.

Arm of Microscope

Curved portion of the microscope that holds all optical parts at a fixed distance and keeps them aligned.


Type of plant hormone that promotes cell growth or elongation.

Base of Microscope

Bears the weight of all the parts of the microscope.


An animal or plant that shows a measurable response to a change in its environment.

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)

A chronic degenerative disease affecting the nervous system of cattle that is linked to specific infectious proteins called prions and produces large vacuoles or empty pockets in brain tissue; commonly known as "mad cow disease".


Illumination in the light microscope in which the specimen is illuminated by an unfiltered beam of white light that passes from the illumination source through the specimen, into the objective, and then into the eyepiece.

Capillary Action

The ability of the surface of a liquid to cling to the surface of a solid, causing the liquid to move along the solid.


Sugars and related molecules formed by carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms in a ratio of 1:2:1, used as a major energy source by organisms.

Carrier Protein

A protein present in a cell membrane that binds to a specific molecule and transports it through the membrane.

Cell Communication

The ability of cells in a multicellular organism to interact with each other and to influence each others activity.

Cell Membrane

Structure that surrounds a cell and regulates the passage of materials between the cell and its environment.

Cell Theory

States all living things are made up of cells, and all cells came from pre-existing cells.

Cell Transport

The movement of particles into an out of a cell.

Cell Wall

Rigid frame around the cell in plants that provide strength and support.

Cellular Respiration

Breakdown of glucose molecules to release chemical energy a cell can use.C6H1202+6O2=6CO2+6H20+energyglucose+oxygen = carbon dioxide + water


Paired structures found in animal cells that are important for the process of cell division.

Channel Protein

A protein in the cell membrane that forms a passageway through which specific solutes can pass by diffusion.


A green pigment that makes photosynthesis possible.


A green organelle found in plants and some protists that contains chlorophyll and is the site of photosynthesis.

Coarse Adjustment Knob

Moves the stage of the microscope up and down.


Tendency of like molecules to stick together.

Companion Cells

Type of small phloem cells adjacent to sieve tube cells that appear to control sugar transport in the phloem.

Concentration Gradient

Difference within a given area between the highest and lowest concentration of a particular substance.

Confocal Microscope

Microscope that uses confocal technology.

Confocal Technology

Systems that use the light microscope, laser beams and computers to produce 3D images from a combination of many perfectly focused thin sections.


The ability to see difference between structures due to differences in their capacity to absorb light.

Control Systems

Systems within plants that produce definite responses to specific stimuli.


Part of the experiment in which the manipulated variable is not changed in any way from its normal condition.

Controlled Experiment

An experiment in which each variable is controlled in turn, allowing the experimenter to determine the effect of each.

Controlled Variables

Conditions that are held constant throughout an experiment.


Waxy, waterproof, non-cellular coating that covers a plants leaves and stems.

Cytoplasmic Streaming

The motion transports nutrients, proteins, and organelles within cells


Network of fine protein fibres that supports cells that contain a nucleus.

Dermal Tissue

The outermost cell layer of plants; Aka epidermis.


The removal of salt from a solution, usually seawater.

Dialysis Tubing

Seamless cellulose membrane with pores of a specific size.


Adjusts the diameter of the opening to control the amount of light passing through the specimen.


Movement of particles from an are of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

Electron Microscope (EM)

A microscope that uses a beam of electrons to produce images of fine detail.

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

An EM in which a 3D image is formed by electrons bouncing off the surface of the spectrum.

Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)

An EM in which the image is formed by a beam of electrons that passes through a very thin section of a fixed and stained specimen.


Characteristic of a substance that does not allow electrons to pass through it, but either absorbs or scatters the electrons.


Uptake of particles or molecules via the formation of a vesicle from the cell membrane; Requires energy from ATP. Remember, "EN" = particles "IN".

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Series of interconnected small tubes that branch from the nuclear envelope in which materials can be transferred; Smooth: Associated w/ fats & oil production. Rough: Has ribosomes attached to it -> where protein synthesis occurs.


Outermost cell layer of plants; aka the dermal tissue.


A state of balance between opposing actions.


Release of molecules from a vesicle that fuses with the cell membrane to export the molecules from the cell; Requires energy from ATP. Remember, "EX" = particles "EXITING"


Magnifies the image from the objective lens and conveys it to your eye.

Facilitated Diffusion

Facilitated diffusion occurs when carrier proteins allow particles that are too large to pass the cell membrane on their own to move along the concentration gradient from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration. An example of facilitated diffusion is movement of glucose.

Field of View

Area that can be seen through the microscope with a given objective lens.

Fine Adjustment Knob

Make subtle adjustments to produce sharp, clear images.

Fluid Mosaic Model

Description of the arrangement of protein molecules in the fluid double layer of phospholipids that make up the cell membrane.

Fluorescence Microscopy

A technique to localize substances in cells by using the ability of those substances to fluoresce in the presence of ultraviolet light.

Gene Mapping

A technique to locate the position of specific genes within the genetic make-up of a particular organism.


Directional plant growth in response to gravity. Positive: Growth with the force of gravity. Negative: Growth against the force of gravity.

GFP Technology

A process that allows cell activities to be studied by attaching the green fluorescent protein (GFP) to particular parts of the cell.

Golgi Apparatus

Flat disc shaped sacs involved in secretion; Receives substances and packages them for transport out of the cell. "The Booty."

Ground Tissue

Ground tissue provides strength and support, stores food and water, and performs photosynthesis.

Guard Cell

Specialized epidermal cell that swells and contracts to control gas exchange through stomata in a leaf.


Treatment for kidney failure in which membranes in a dialysis machine clean the blood and remove excess wastes and water from the body that would normally be removed by a healthy kidney.


Describes a soft plant stem with little or no woody tissue.


Chemical compound that travels from its production site to other sites where it produces an effect.


Solute with higher solute concentration than another solution.


Solute with lower solute concentration than another solution.


Hormone that binds to a protein on the cell membrane, allowing glucose to enter the cell by facilitated diffusion.


Solute with the same solute concentration as another solution.


A raised spongy region in the stem of a woody plant that allows gas exchange between the atmosphere and the interior of the plant.

Life Force

A natural force postulated to produce life spontaneously; Disproved by Pasteur.


Fats and oils formed of carbon, oil and hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a ratio different from 1:2:1; Insoluble in water.


Fluid-filled sacs surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer identical to the cell membrane of human cells.


Membrane bound sacs in the cell in which digestion occurs; Defends against bacteria, destroys damaged organelles and controlled digestion of certain tissues during development."The Intestines".


An increase in the apparent size of an object,calculated as a product of the magnifying powers of the objective lens and the eyepiece.

Membrane Technologies

Industrial use of synthetics to mimic the action of a membrane.


An area in the plant in which growth occurs, due to a high rate of mitosis (cell division).


Specialized ground tissue inside a leaf, made up of thin-walled cells containing chloroplasts.


Person trained in the use of the microscope.


Rod-like structures where reactions occur to convert chemical energy into energy the cell can use; ex. produces energies needed w/ ATP"The Powerhouse of the Cell".

Nuclear Envelope

Double-layered membrane that separates the nuclear content from the cytoplasm.

Nucleic Acid

Complex molecule made up of nucleotide; DNA and RNA.


Organelle that contains DNA , the genetic material and conducts all cellular activities.


Group of tissues that work together to perform a specific function.


Structure that performs a specific function in a cell.


Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.

Palisade Tissue Cell

Column-shaped mesophyll cells in a plant leaf; responsible for photosynthesis.

Particle Model

1. All matter is made of particles.

2. Particles are constantly moving.

3. Are attracted to each other or bonded.

4.Particles have space between them.

Passive Transport

Movement of substances along the concentration gradient, without ATP.

Peritoneal Dialysis

Process by which waste products from the blood pass by diffusion into a dialysate solution in the peritoneal cavity.


A membrane that lines the abdominal cavity in humans and other vertebrates.

Phloem Tissue

Vascular tissue that transports carbohydrates and water from the leaves to other parts of the plant.

Phospholipid Bilayer

Double layer of outward facing phosphates and inward facing fatty acids that form a cell membrane.


Directional plant growth in response to light.

Positive: Grows towards light source.

Negative: Grows away from light source.

Plasma Membrane

Structure that surrounds a cell and regulates the passage of materials between the cell and its environment aka the cell membrane.


During plasmolysis in plant cells, water leaves the cell through osmosis, and the central vacuole shrinks. The cell membrane around the cytoplasmalso shrinks away from the cell wall. The cell wallis rigid, so the shape of the cell is maintained, butit loses some of its firmness. The plant wilts because of this loss of firmness.

Pressure Difference

The difference in pressure of two substances may cause movement of substances.

Pressure-Flow Theory

The pressure-flow theory describes the movement of sugar molecules through the phloem from the sites of photosynthesis. Carrier proteins in thec ompanion cells use active transport to move sugars into the sieve tube cells. Water follows by osmosis, and also enters the sieve tube cells. As the pressure increases in the cells, the water and the sugars get pushed along through the phloem to a sink. The pressure differences drive the movement of substances through the phloem.


Infectious particles composed of specifically altered proteins that occur in the brains of humans and animals and can lead to neurodegenerative diseases.


Large molecule formed by amino acids.

Protein Hormones

Protein molecules that are active in an organism at a distance firm the location they are produced.

Protein Synthesis

Process where amino acids are assembled into proteins.


Single-celled organism with a nucleus.

Rate of Diffusion

Relative movement of a particle in response to a concentration gradient.

Receptor Proteins

Specialized molecules on the surface of the cell to which messenger molecules from other cells can bind.

Recognition Proteins

Protein molecules protruding from cells that allow communication between cells. ex. sperm-egg recognition.

Resolution/Resolving Power

Ability to distinguish between two structures that are close together.

Reverse Osmosis (RO)

(Don't you dare say "its the reverse of osmosis" be more specific!!!!!!!)

Movement of water through a semi-permeable membrane from LOW to HIGH concentration; Requires energy. Ex. Pump pushing water from low to high.


Dense looking granules formed of two parts, may be attached to rough ER or free in cytoplasm; Site where amino acids are assembled into proteins by protein synthesis.


Underground part of plant that is involved in absorption and transport of water and minerals plus the storage of materials.

Root Hair

Extension of a specialized dermal cell on a root which absorbs water and minerals.

Root Pressure

Upward force exerted in water on the xylem in the roots of some plants.

Root System

Plant organ that includes all tissues under the ground.


The difference between the actual size of an object and the size of a drawing. Usually expressed as a ratio.

Selectively Permeable Membrane

A natural membrane that only allows some particles to pass through it but excludes others.

Semi-Permeable Membrane

A membrane that only allows some particles to pass through it but excludes others; can be natural or synthetic.

Shoot System

Plant organ system that includes everything above ground.

Sieve Tube

Cylindrical, no nuclei walls; Allow conduction of Phloem.


Root, Tuber, Fruit, etc. ie. something that recieves carbohydrates.


Substance that is dissolved in a solution.


Substance that dissolves one or more solutes in a solution; water is a common solvent.


According to the pressure flow theory, cells that manufacture carbohydrates in plants.

Spongy Mesophyll Tissue

Layer of loosely spaced mesophyll cells in a leaf.

Spontaneous Generation

The idea that life could emerge from non living matter. Disproved by Louis Pasteur.

Staining Techniques

Use of stains or colouring techniques to improve the contrast between structures in cells.


Change in environment that causes a reaction by the organism.


Pores that allow gases to pass through the epidermis of a leaf.

Surface Area to Volume Ratio in relation to the Rate of Diffusion

The rate of diffusion decreases as the ratio of surface area to volume decreases.


A stress caused by the action of a pulling force.


Term that relates the concentration of solute particles in solutions.

ex. Hypertonic, Isotonic and Hypotonic.

Trace element

Element that organisms require in small amounts.


Transpiration is the process of water leaving the leaf through stomata. Transpiration has the effect of drawing water upwards through the plant from the roots, due to the cohesion between water molecules.


Enlarged underground stem that stores food.


Makes the plant rigid and able to stand upright.

Turgor Pressure

Turgor pressure is the pressure applied by water against the cell wall in plants, when water enters the cell due to concentration differences. It is important to the plant cells because it gives rigidity to the plant as a whole and helps to keep the leaves spread out for exposure to light energy from the Sun.


Stores nutrients, products of secretion and fats; In plants the central one stores water.

"The Storage Room".

Vascular Bundle

A vascular bundle is made up of grouped xylem and phloem tissues.

Vascular Tissue

Vascular tissues move materials through the plant; xylem moves water and dissolved minerals, phloem moves sugars and water.


A vesicle is a sac formed from a section of the cell membrane that pinches off to surround and contain a large particle.

X-Ray Crystallography

Study of the structure of molecules by means of X-rays, special sensors that analyze patterns of x-ray scattering and computer technology.


Xylem transports water and salts; Formed of cells that are dead at maturity.

Unit D: Weather etc.

X this card so when you go back to do the ones you got wrong it is still separated by unit.



To convert radiant energy into another form of energy, such as kinetic energy.


Any change in the structure of function of an organism that makes it more suited to its environment.


Percent of incoming solar radiation that a surface reflects.


The distance above earth's surface, measured from sea level.

Anecdotal Evidence

Evidence that relies on reports from people about particular events and their interpretation of these events; not tested for bias.

Angle of Incidence

The angle between a ray falling on a surface and the line of the perpendicular to that surface.

Angle of Inclination

The degree by which earth's poles are tilted from the perpendicular of the plane of its orbit, or 23.5 degrees.


Layer of gases that surround earth.

Atmospheric Dust

Solid particles less than 0.66 in diameter suspended in earth's atmosphere.

Atmospheric Pressure

The pressure exerted by the mass of air above any point of the earth's surface.


A large geographical region with a particular range of temperature and precipitation levels, and the plants and animals that are adapted to these climate conditions.


A relatively thin layer of earth that has conditions suitable for supporting life.


A device used to determine the transfer of thermal energy.

Carbon Sink

Any process that removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Ex. Photosynthesis

Carbon Source

Any process that removes carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Ex. Burning of fossil fuels.


Average weather conditions that occur in a particular region over a long period of time (usually 30 years).

Climate Change

Change that occurs in the average weather conditions of a region.


A summary of the average temperature and precipitation for each month of the year for a given location, presented as a graph.


The outcome of an experiment based on the agreement or disagreement of the data with the hypothesis.


The transfer of thermal energy by direct contact between the particles of a substance, without moving the particles to a new location.


The transfer of thermal energy by the movement of particles from one location to another.

Cariolis Effect

The deflection of any object from a straight line path caused by the rotation of the earth.


Flow from one place to another in one direction.


Mass per volume of a substance.

Emission Reduction Credits (ERCs)

Credits given to a country under the Kyoto Protocol for actions that contribute to global reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

Enhanced Greenhouse Effect

The change in earth's net radiation budget, caused by the increase in human generated greenhouse gases.


One of two points in earth's orbit when the number of daylight hours is equal to the hours of night.


The process of estimating the value of a measurement beyond the known values of a set of data.


Substances with no definite shape (ie. gases and liquids).

Fossil Fuels

Carbon based fuels formed from the remains of living organisms.

General Circulation Model (GCM)

A climate model that incorporates the laws of physics to model climate on a global scale.

Global Warming

The observed increase in earth's average temperature over time.

Greenhouse Gases and Examples

Gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect.

ie. Natural Greenhouse Gas Effect : Water Vapour.

Enhanced: Carbon Dioxide (CO2), methane and nitrous oxide (N2O).


Human-made chemicals that can absorb large quantities of thermal energy.

Heat of Condensation

The amount of energy released when 1 mol of a vapour changes to the liquid phase, without a change in temperature.

Heat of Fusion

The amount of energy absorbed when 1 mol of a substance changes from solid phase to liquid phase, without change in temperature.

Heat of Solidification

The amount of energy released when 1 mol of a substance changes from liquid phase to solid phase, without a change in temperature.

Heat of Vaporization

The amount of energy absorbed when 1 mol of a substance changes from vapour phase to gas phase, without a change in temperature.

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)

Compounds with similar properties to CFCs, it which destroy ozone much slower.

Hydrologic Cycle/Water Cycle

The process by which water molecules move from earth's surface into the atmosphere and then back again.


All water on earth, whether present as liquid, water vapour or ice.

Incoming Radiation

All the radiant energy that reaches earth.


The amount of solar energy received by a region of earth's surface.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

An international group of scientists who asses information on climate change.

Jet Stream

A band of fast-moving air in the stratosphere.

Kyoto Protocol

An international agreement to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.


Imaginary lines that run parallel to earth's equator; equator has a latitude of 0 degrees and the poles have a latitude of 90 degrees north and 90 degrees south.


Solid portion of earth, composed of rocks, minerals and elements.


The third atmospheric layer above earth's surface. 50 km to 80 km.

Montreal Protocol

An international agreement to phase out the production and use of CFCs.

Natural Greenhouse Effect

The absorption of thermal energy by the atmosphere.

Net Radiation Budget

The difference between the amount of incoming radiation and outgoing radiation from earth's surface and atmosphere.


A molecule made up of three atoms of oxygen.

Ozone Layer

A layer in the stratosphere containing high levels of ozone gas.


Permanently frozen ground.


The state of a substance (solid, liquid or vapour).


A subtype of grassland biome found in regions such as North America; have a cooler average temperature than the other subtype of grassland biome, savanna.


Emission of energy as particles or waves.


Change the direction of a ray of radiant energy.


Subtype of grassland biome found in regions such as Africa, Central America and Australia; Warmer average temperature than the other grassland subtype prairie.

Scientific Evidence

Evidence collected in a manner that, as much as possible, ensures it is unbiased and reflects general situations, rather than particular events. Usually collected by trained scientists and checked by other scientists.

Specific Heat Capacity (c)

Amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1 degree Celsius.


One of two points in earth's orbit at which the poles are most tilted toward or away from the sun.


Atmospheric layer above the troposphere, from 10 to 50 km above earth's surface.


A set of organs or parts that performs one or more functions as a unit.

Thermal Energy

The amount of energy possessed by a substance by virtue of the kinetic energy of its molecules or atoms.

Thermal Energy Transfer

Movement of thermal energy from and area of high temperature to an area of low temperature.


Furthest layer from earth's surface. 80 km to 300 km.


Layer of atmospheric gases at 0 km to 10 km from the earth's surface.

United Nations Framework Convection on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

An agreement by the worlds nations to act in ways that will stabilize greenhouse gases emissions from anthropogenic sources.


Conditions of temperature, air pressure, could cover, precipitation, and humidity that occur at a particular place at a particular time.


Movement of cool air from an area of high atmospheric pressure to an area of low atmospheric pressure.