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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

breast examination

self-exams monthly; clinical every year.

uterus (pap)

yearly if problems; every three years if normal

lung cancer prevention

don't smoke cigarettes

skin cancer prevention

avoid excess sunlight.

colon-rectum cancer prevention

annual proctology exam after 40

mouth cancer prevention

exams regularly

whole body cancer prevention

annual general health exam.


the great majority of all cancers and are malignant tumors of epithelial tissues. they are named according to the type of epithelial cell in which the malignancy occurs or the primary site of the tumor.

squamous carcinoma

a cancer of the squamous epithelium.


less prevalent type of cancer that develops from embryonic cells of connective tissue such as muscle, fat, bone, and blood vessels. they are named by adding the suffix -oma (tumor) with the root sarc (flesh) to the word part that identifies the tissue of origin.


a cancer of the bone for example. osteo (CF), bone; sarc (R), flesh; and -oma (S), tumor.

mixed cancers

originate in cells capable of differentiating into epithelial or connective tissue or when malignancies occur concurrently in adjacent tissue types.

other cancers

leukemias, lymphomas, or melanomas

grade I

the most differentiated and the least malignant tumors. only a few cells are undergoing mitosis; however, some abnormality does exist.

grade II

moderately undifferentiated. more cells are undergoing mitosis, and the pattern is fairly irregular.

grade III

many cells are undifferentiated, and tissue origin may be difficult to recognize. many cells are undergoing mitosis.

grade IV

the least differentiated and a high degree of malignancy.


tumors, may be benign or malignant.

benign tumors

  1. grow slowly
  2. encapsulated
  3. cells resemble the normal cells from which they arose
  4. grow by expansion and cause pressure on surrounding tissue
  5. remain localized
  6. do not recur when surgically removed
  7. tissue destruction is minimal
  8. no cachexia
  9. usually not a threat to life.

malignant tumors

  1. grow rapidly
  2. not encapsulated
  3. cells undergo permanent change, abnormal rapid proliferation
  4. invasive growth and metastasis
  5. spread via the bloodstream
  6. may recur when surgically removed if invasive growth has occurred
  7. tissue destruction is extensive if invasive growth has occurred
  8. cancer cachexia (extreme weakness, fatigue, wasting, malnutrition)
  9. threat to life unless detected early and properly treated


  • change in bowel or bladder habits
  • a sore that does not heal
  • unusual bleeding or discharge
  • thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
  • indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
  • obvious change in a wart or mole
  • nagging cough or hoarseness


provides the physician with a direct view of certain portions of the body.


the process of using a sigmoidoscope to examine the lower 10 inches of the large intestines.


the process of using a laryngoscope to examine the interior of the larynx.


the process of using a bronchoscope to examine the bronchi.


the process of using a gastroscope to examine the interior of the stomach


the process of using a cytoscope to examine the bladder


the process of using a colposcope to examine the cervix and vagina


the process of using a proctoscope to examine the anus and rectum.


the process of using a colonoscope to examine the colon.


the process of using a laparoscope to examine the abdomen

laboratory analysis

plays a key role in detecting specific types of cancer.

pap smear/test

a cytologic screening test developed by Dr. George Papanicolaou and used to detect the presence of abnormal or cancerous cells from the cervix and vagina.

fecal occult blood test

a test used to detect occult (hidden) blood. this test may be used to check for cancer of the colon.

sputum cytology test

microscopic examination of sputum to detect abnormal or cancerous cells of the bronchi and lungs

blood serum test

analysis of blood serum provides useful information about certain proteins synthesized by cancer.

Abbot lab's AFP-EIA test

an immunoassay test that uses alpha-fetoprotein to mark tumor cells when testing for cancer of the testicles.

bone marrow study

a test used to detect abnormal bone marrow cells, which may indicate leukemia.

urine assay tests

tests providing useful information about catecholamines, which may indicate pheochromocytoma of the adrenal medulla.

Gravlee jet washer

a device developed by Dr. Clark Gravlee to check for endometrial abnormalities as surface cells of the uterine cavity are studied under a microscope


the surgical removal of a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination

excisional biopsy

surgical removal of a piece of tissue from the suspected body site

incisional biopsy

a surgical incision to remove a section or wedge of tissue from the suspected body site

needle biopsy

puncture of a tumor for the removal of a core of tissue though the lumen of the needle.

cone biopsy

removal of a cone of tissue from the uterine cervix

sternal biopsy

removal of a piece of bone marrow from the sternum

endoscopic biopsy

removal of a piece of tissue through an endoscope

punch biopsy

removal of a plug of tissue (epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue) from the skin.