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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Functions (2)

Oxygen intake for use by the body

removal of waste products of metabolism

mechanisms (2)

Passive diffusion -simplest form

Oxygen diffusion -usually high partial pressure in the environment; requiring ATP

How does passive diffusion depend on partial pressure?

movement occurs from higher to lower pressure

product of oxygen in respiration

carbon dioxide

Passive diffusion rate factors (4)

1. surface area

2. distance

3. resistance of barriers to diffusion

4. partial pressure

terminologies (3 binaries)

external -environment to blood

internal -blood to tissue



Unidirectional -fish

Bidirectional -many tetrapods

Components: Gills

(2 characteristics)

External respiration for aquatic habitats

areas with dense capillaries for respiration

Components: Gas bladders -swim bladder

(2 functions and 1 example)

buoyancy control

can be used for supplementary respiration

squalene (shark's liver oil)

Components: Gas bladders -lungs

(2 characteristics and their description)

dead space (alveoli where gas-exchange occurs)

tidal volume (total amount of air an organism can hold)

Components: Cutaneous respiration

(2 characteristics)

heavy vascularization

for areas with thin covering

what is device used to measure amount of air an organism can hold?


where can we find cutaneous respiration in reptiles and tortoises?

in between scales of reptiles

in butts of tortoises

Two kinds of gas bladders

swim bladder


Ventilatory mechanisms: Cilia

(2 descriptions)

found in smaller organisms

surface area to volume ratio

Ventilatory mechanisms: dual pumps in fishes

(2 parts)


buccal and opercular pumps


Dual Pump Mechanism

Dual Pump Mechanism

1. Suction Phase

2. Force Phase

3. Oral valve

4. Buccal cavity

5. Gill curtain

6. Opercular cavity

7. Opercular valve

Ventilatory mechanisms: Buccal pump

(2 categories)

Two stroke or Four stroke

Inspiration and Expiration

What type of buccal pump is this?

What type of buccal pump is this?

Two stroke

What type of buccal pump is this?

What type of buccal pump is this?

Four stroke

Ventilatory mechanisms: Aspiration pump

(found in?)


(what serves as pumps?)



ribs and diaphragm

Phylogeny: Fish -Chondrichthyans

(4 characteristics)

Countercurrent flow

ram ventillation

first gill slit -spiracle

interbranchial septa

Phylogeny: Fish -bony fishes

(2 characteristics)

note: one character has three functions

opercular bones

gas bladders: respiration, buoyancy control, sound detection and production

Phylogeny: Amphibia

(describe larval and adult respiration)

larval: gills

adult: cutaneous respiration or lungs

Phylogeny: Reptilia

(describe lungs and give function of accessory gland)

(ventilation mechanism)

(snake, crocodiles and turtles)

Central chamber with faveoli for increasing SA

Aspiration pump

Snake lungs -usually unpaired, respiratory and saccular portions

Crocodiles -liver and lungs

Turtles -muscles with carapace, limb movement

Phylogeny: Avialae

(describe lungs and where is it connected)

(how many air sacs and what is its function)

(where does air sacs extend)

(what is present, what is absent)

paired lungs connected to trachea

6-12 air sacs that act as bellows

extend into bones

presence of parabronchi, no blind-ending alveoli

1. Trachea

2. Primary bronchus (mesobronchus)

3. Posterior thoracic sac

4. Abdominal sac

5. Lung (parabronchial network)

6. Anterior thoracic sac

7. Interclavicular sac

Describe the movement of oxygen in bird respiratory


(a) to posterior thoracic sac, abdominal sac and lungs (inhalation 1)

(b) to lungs and trachea (exhalation 1)


(c) to posterior thoracic sac, abdominal sac and lungs; to (inhalation 2)

(d) to lungs, anterior thoracic sac and interclavicular sacto trachea

Phylogeny: Mammalia

(ventilation mechanism)

(what is used)

Aspiration pump (intercostals and diaphragm)