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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Credited as 1st to address questions about the nature of human beings and behavior
First research psychologist
Willhelm Wundt
1st Lab in US?
William James
What kind of research seeks to increase knowledge?
Basic Research
What kind of research seeks to find solutions to certain problems?
Applied Research
What uses behavioral research methods to assess effects of social or institutional programs on behavior?
Evaluation Research
What are the 3 goals of behavioral research?
1) Describing Behavior
2) Predicting Behavior
3) Explaining Behavior
Is behavior simple common sense?
Why is research valuable to the student?
-Relevant to profession
-Better research consumer
-Increase critical thinking
-Helps one become an authority
The practice of relying on observation to draw conclusions about the world
Scientific observation must necessarily be...
3 facts of "the scientific approach" are:
1) Empiricism
2) Public Verification
3) Sovable Problems
Easy to recognize; violates the basic criteria of science systematic empiricism, public verification, and solvability
Psudoscience characteristics:
-Irrefutable hypotheses
What are scientists' two jobs?
Detecting and explaining phenomena
A set of propositions that attempts to specify the interrelationships among a set of concepts
A _______ specifies how and why concepts are interrelated , a ________ describes only how they are related
Explanations made after the fact
Hypotheses made prior to data collection
A specific proposition that logically flows from a theory
A process of reasoning from a general proposition (theory) to specific implications of that proposition (hypothesis)
Abstracting a hypothesis froma collection of facts.
Hypotheses based solely on previously observed patterns of results
Emperical Generalizations
Specifically, hypotheses must be open to ___________.
When researchers use many different methods and designs as they test theories.
Methodological Pluralism
When research confirms one theory while discrediting others
Strategy of strong inference
Like the dictionary definition
Conceptual Definition
Defines a concept by specifying precisely how the concept is measured or maniupulated in a study
Operational Definition.
Can hypotheses ever be completely proven?
No, only supported or un-supported.
Certain variables that are not related to human behavior
Null findings..
What are the strategies of Behavioral Research?
1) Descriptive Research
2) Correlational Research
3) Experimental Research
4) Quasi-Experimental Research
Describes the behavior, thoughts or feelings of a group.
Descriptive Research
Investigates the relationships among various psychological variables.
Correlational Research
When a variable is changed or manipulated to see changes in behavior.
Experimental Research
The variable that is changed or manipulated.
Independent Variable.
The variable that is observed or recorded
Dependent Variable.
The researcher either studies the effects of some variable or event that occurs naturally (and doesn't manipulate the independent variable) or else manipulates the ind. variable but doesn't control extraneous factors.
Quasi-Experimental Research
A cognitive generalization that organizes and guides the processing of information.
All behavioral research attempts to answer questions about ______________.
Behavioral Variability.
Behavior varies across what 3 things?
1) across situations
2) among individuals
3) over time
Used to summarize and describe the behavior of participants in the study.
Descriptive Statistics.
Used to draw conclusions about the reliability and generalizability of one's findings.
Inferential statistics
A statistic used by researchers to indicate the amount of variability in participants behavior.
= systematic variance + error variance.
Total Variance
The part of variability in participants' behavior that is related in an orderly, predictable fashion to the variables the researcher is investigating
Systematic Variance
Variance that remains unnaccounted for...
Error Variance
The statistics that measure the strength of relationships are called ________ _________ or _____________________.
1) Effect Sizes
2) Measures of strength of association.
what are the cutoffs for small, medium and large association among variables?
.01, .06, and .15 (.15 being a relatively strong relationship).
An effect size of ____ of the total variance in a variable is considered a large effect.
.15 or 15%
Used to analyze and integrate the results from a large set of individual studies.
Involve the direct observation of behavior
Observational measures
Use bodily processes and behavior
Physiological measures.
Involve the replies people give to questionaires and interviews
Self-Report Measures
Involve how participants "feel"
Affective self-reports
Involve how participants "think"
Cognitive self-reports
Involve how participants "act"
Behavioral self-reports
The study of psychological measurement
When different kinds of measurement provide the same results there is more confident in their validity.
Convergent Operations
Basically the numbers assigned to participants, ie. 1, 2, 3...
Nominal Scale (name)
The rank ordering of a set of behaviors or characteristics
Ordinal Scale
Involves the rank ordering of a set of behaviors or characteristics.
Ordinal Scale
Equal differences between the numbers reflect equal differences between participants. i.e., IQ test
Interval Scale
Highest level of measurement. Has a true zero score, involves real numbers that can be added, subtracted, etc.
Ratio scale.
Refers to the consistency or dependability of a measuring technique.
The score that the participant would have obtained if our measure were perfect and we had no error.
True Score
Error not attributed to true score
Measurement Error
Assessing a measure's reliability involves an analysis of the ___________
What factors attribute to measurement error
1)transient states
2) stable attributes
3) situational factors
4) characteristics of the measure itself
5) recording mistakes.
Reliability = ________ + _______
Variance due to true score + Variance to to measurement error.
Assessing a measure's reliability involves an analysis of the ___________
The proportion of the total variance in a set of scores that is systematic variance assoc. w/ participants true scores.
The proportion of the total variance in a set of scores that is systematic variance assoc. w/ participants true scores.
What is the range in measure of reliability?
.00 (no reliability) - 1.00 (perfect reliability)
This statistic expresses the strength of the relationship between two measures on a scale from .00 to 1.00
Correlation Coefficient
Refers to the consistency of participant's responses on a measure over time.
Test-retest reliability.
Measures the degree of consistency among the items on the scale.
Interitem reliability.
The correlation between a particular item and the sum of all other items on the scale.
Item-total correlation.
What level do researchers want the item-total correlation between each item to be?
.30 or greater.
When the researcher divides the items on a scale into two sets.
Equivalent to the average of all possible split-half reliabilities.
Cronbach's alpha
As rule of thumb, researchers consider a measure to have adequate inter-item reliabliity if Chronbach's alpha exceeds _______?
.70 or 70%
Involves consistency among two or more researchers who observe and record participants.
Inter-rater reliability.
What are 4 ways to increase reliability of measures?
1) standardize the measure
2) clarify the instructions/questions
3) train observers
4) minimize errors in coding data.
The extent to which a measurement procedure actually measures what it is intended to measure
What are 3 ways to assess validity?
1) Face Validity
2) Construct Validity
3) Criterion-Related Validity
The extent to which a measure appears to measure what it's supposed to measure. Not scientific, based on the judgement of the researcher.
Face Validity
Entities that cannot be directly observed but are inferred on the basis of empirical evidence.
Hypothetical Constructs
Seeing whether a particular measure relates as it should to other measures.
Construct validity.
Correlate with measures that it should
Convergent Validity
Does not correlate with measures that it should not.
Discriminant Validity.
Refers to the extent to which a measure allows us to distinguish among participants on the basis of a particular criterion.
Criterion-Related Validity.
Two measures administered at roughly the same time.
Concurrent Validity.
Occurs when particular measure is not equally valid for everyone who takes the test.
Test Bias.