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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

3 basic principles of Belmont report

Respect for persons, beneficence-maximize benefits, minimize risk, justice-benefits and burdens are distributed equally

informed consent

statement informing potential research participants of purposes, procedures, risks, benefits of research; participation is voluntary

key components of informed consent

1) made fully aware of nature and purpose

2) consent is voluntary

3) has legal capacity to give consent

4) obtaining consent lies with researcher

purpose of an IRB

to protect the rights of research participants, make sure Belmont Report is followed

3 categories of IRB review

exempt- no review

expediated- minimal risk

full review-risks are more than minimal

scientific misconduct due to fabrication or falsification

they made up or or changed data numbers to influence the results

academic dishonesty due to plagiarism

they passed off someone else's work as their own without citing it

most crucial element in selecting a sample from a population

make sure sample is representative of population

probability sampling

sampling technique in which the probability of selecting participant is known

nonprobability sampling

probability of selecting participants in unknown

simple random

equal chance of being selected; selection of one element does not influence selection chances

adv-bias free

disadv-may not be representative


choose every xth element

adv-quick, efficient

disadv-not random

stratified random

divide into subgroups, then pick from subgroups

adv-representative sample

disadv-not completely random

cluster sampling

sample is naturally occuring group/cluster

adv-participant demographics are spread out, more practical, cheap

disadv-if small cluster, not equal size


get people who are most convenient

adv-easy , quick

disadv- not generalizable

purposive sampling

select people with traits that are critical to result


disadv-not large sample size

procedures involved in purposive sampling

depends on target population and how generalized you want results to be

five factors that influence researcher's decision on sample size

preliminary studies, money and time, documenting something rare, variability of population, if looking for sample difference you need a larger sample size


relationship between variables is due to real difference and not sampling error

p<.05= reject null, low sampling error

p>.05=fail to reject, high sampling error

components required when writing hypothesis

complete sentence

identify IV and DV


use association or relationship when talking about correlation

alpha level

probability level selected that warrants rejection of null hypothesis, usually .05

manipulation vs. control

manipulation is where you actively change a variable to see its effects

control is where you take out variables for research

internal validity

how valid the findings are within the study

external validity

degree to which findings in study can be inferred or generalized

threats to internal: History

things happening past or present that will affect scores or treatment

threats to internal: maturation

maturation of participants can affect performance and change results

threats to internal: testing

act of taking a test can change scores

threats to internal: instrumentation

affected by type, calibration, adjustment

threats to internal: stats regression

people who score extreme first time will score closer the mean the second time

threats to internal: selection bias

researcher is biased in selecting participants

threats to internal: experimental mortality

loss of participants means sample may not be representative anymore

threats to external: expectancy

if you expect a certain result, you may be biased toward it

threats to external: reactive effects of experimental setting

experimental treatment has unique effect on participants that would not be observed in another setting

threats to external: multiple treatment interference

effect of prior treatment on response to current treatment

pre-experimental design

no random selection or random assignment, poor control

what determines type of review for IRB

high vs. low risk, high=full, low=expediated

population validity

the extent to which the resultscan be generalized from the experimental sample to a defined population

ecological validity

extent to which the results of an experiment canbe generalized from the set of environmental conditions in the experiment toother environmental conditions

true experimental design

random sampling and assignment, high level of control


lack either random selection or assignment, moderate level of control

using physical manipulation to control variables

can control environment and experience

using selective manipulation to control variables

choose certain participants and matched pairs

placebo effect

treatment that has no effect, gives participant idea that they are receiving treatment

john henry effect

control group will try harder if they know they are not supposed to be as good as experimental group

experimenter bias

the effect experimenter has on results

can affect methodology, treatment, and data collection

hawthorne effect

participants may perform differently if they know they are in a study or being watched

central tendancy error

rate participants in middle of scale instead of rating extremes

rating affect as source of error

human error can affect results, discrepancies in rating, halo effect

single-blind study

participants don't know purpose of study

double-blind study

participants not aware of purpose of study or who is in what group

administered questionnaire

give by researcher, response is manadory and immediate

distributed questionnaire

don't have to get it back, not direct, may take while

reliability and examples

consistency of response

can do questionnaire on two different days, use opposite terms

validity and example

degree to which answers are correct

usually determine by jury; judge content, construction, and use

norm referenced

rating on best to worst scale, percentile ranks

criteron referenced

pass or fail, drivers test

importance of format elements

appearance-professional, typed neat

demographics at end

keep length to one page

more likely to get returned


capacity of individuals to control when and under what conditions others will have access to their info



ability to link info/data collected during study to person's identity


longitudinal study

follow one group over x number of years

cross-sectional study

take data from several groups at one time period