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104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are gametes?

haploid sex cells

What is the male reproductive system?

male gonads (testes)

Where do sperm mature and learn how to swim?


Where do sperm enter after the epdidymes? and what is that areas function?

vas deferens where they may be stored

What is the nutrient rich fluid in which sperm travel through during ejaculation?

seminal fluid

What type of energy do sperm have at their disposal?

sugar fructose

What is the function of seminal vesicles?

contributes energy such fructose to semen

What is the function of the prostate gland?

produces secretion containing bicarbonate ion
smooth muscle for ejaculation

What type of environment do sperm thrive in?

a basic environment because vaginal fluid is acidic

What if the function of Cowper's glands(bulbourethral gland)?

neutrolizes and lubricates urethra and penis for penetration
flushes out residue in urethra (pre-ejaculate)

What hormone contained in sperm causes the uterus to contract?


What are testes stored in?


What is the head of the sperm called? What is its function?

acrosome, contains enzymes that help penetrate egg

What is the function of seminiferous tubules?

produce sperm

What is the production of sperm called?


What is the first form of sperm?


what is the second stage of a sperm?


What is the third stage of a sperm?


What is the last stage of a sperm?


Describe the life cycle of a sperm to become mature

Spermatogonia (1) goes through mitosis to become a spermatocyte (1) and then goes through meiosis to become a spermatocyte (42 then goes through meiosis to become a spermatid (4), then eventually matures to become a spermatozoa

What is the function of a Sertoli cell (sustentacular cell) ?

support, nourish and regulate spermatogenic cells

Where is the mitochondria located on the sperm?

middle piece

Why is the mitochondria needed on the middle piece of the sperm?

to produce ATP energy to move the tail

What is another name for male sex hormone?


What is the function of interstitial cells?

secretes testosterone under influence of LH from anterior pituitary

Where are interstitial cells found?

between the seminiferous tubules (in testes)

Which hormone does the hypothalamus secrete that allows it to control the testes' function?

its neurosecretory cells secrete into the anterior pituitary gland gonadotropin releasing hormone

Which organ does the gonadotropin releasing hormone affect?

anterior pituitary gland because it causes the gland to release gonadotropin hormones

What are two examples of gonadotropin hormones?

Follicle stimulation hormones (FSH) and lutenizing hormones (LH)

What is the function of follicle stimulation hormone in men?

promotes the production of sperm within seminiferous tubule

What is the inhibitor released in response to FSh?

inhibin, inhibits FSH synthesis

How does luteinizing hormone affect men?

increase production of testosterone
(interstitial cell stimuatling hormones, ICSH)

What is in common with all gonadotropin hormones?

They all involve negative feedback

What are the effects testosterone has on the body?

lower voice
broad shoulders

What is the name of the canal the testicles descend during embryonic development?

inguinal canal

What is cryptorchidism?

testicles dont descend from abdomen

What is the function of the scrotum?

to allow for cooler temperatures to store sperm

How many chromosomes are there in human sex cell?


At which stage of sperm's life do Sertoli cells nourish the sperm?

spermatozoa, mature

What suspends testes in scrotum?

spermatic cords

What is a hernia?

abdominal contents pushed into inguinal canal and into scrotum (small intestine)

Which part of the nervous system causes an erection?


What are the 3 components of the penis?

glans penis
erectile tissue

What is the cone-shaped terminal portion of penis covered with nerve endings for sensitivity?

glans penis

Which part in the penis produces smegma?

smegma, lubricates foreskin

What produces prostaglandins, fructose and proteins for sperm?

seminal vesicles

What is the path of sperm during ejaculation?

seminiferous tubules ---> epididymis ---> vas deferens ---> ejaculatory duct ----> prostate gland ----> urethra ---> BOOM

What is ovulation?

when an egg bursts from the ovaries

What is the function of oviducts?

(fallopian tube)
to contract and move egg towards uterus

Where does the fertilization, final stages of oogenesis and zygote formation of egg normally occur?

in fallopian tubes

What is an ectopic pregnancy?

implantation inside fallopian tube

What is the function of the uterus?

muscular organ for nurturing the egg

What is the cervix?

opening of uterus that is inside vagina

Which layer within the uterus forms the placenta?

Endometrium with the basal and functional layers

What is the test for cervical cancer called?

Pap Smear

What is a hysterectomy?

removal of uterus if cancer is found

What is the vulva?

all the external female genitalia

What is the fatty prominence under pubic hair?

mons pubis

What is oogenesis?

production of an egg or oocyte

What fingerlike projections sweep the ovaries? and which structure do they belong to?

fimbriae, fallopian tube

What is the labia majora?

it is the largest flaps in the vagina

What is contained within the labia majora?

labia minora, clitoris, hymen


homologous to penis with erectile tissue

Labia Minora

Flaps at opening of vagina


ring of tissue that partially closes vagina

Which part of the vagina lubricates it?

labia minora and blood vessels secrete fluids

How does follicle stimulating hormone affect women?

stimulates follicular development in ovary causes estrogen and progesterone to be secreted

How does luteinizing hormone affect women?

involved in uterine cycle and development of corpus luteum which secretions progesterone and estrogen

What produces and secretes sex hormones in a woman?

ovarian follicles

What are oocytes surrounded by?

follicular cells

What is weeks 1-2 called and what occurs?

follicular phase
1.one primary oocyte does meiosis 1 forms two cells, primary oocyte and first polar body (both 4n)
2.first polar body degenerates and other cell remains in follicle to become secondary oocyte/follicle since it is surrounded by follicular cells which release hormones such as estrogen and a bit of preogesterone
3. secondary oocyte/follicle begins meisosis 2 but stops at metaphase 2, it will only complete this mitosis when it become fertilized inside fallopian tubes

What happens to the secondary oocyte if it gets FSH secretions from the anterior pituitary gland?

enlarges to become Graafian follicle

What happens as the graafian follicle grows bigger?

if forms a bulge that merges with wall of ovary and will burst releasing the secondary oocyte also known as ovulation

What is the substance that surrounds the secondary oocyte?

a mucoprotein called zona pellucida

What is the function of zona pellucida?

surrounds secondary oocyte after it bursts from Graafian follicle, helps sperm acrosomal enzyme function and bind sperm to egg

What happens to a follicle once it has lost its secondary oocyte?

it becomes a corpus luteum, a hormone releasing structure

What causes the follicle phase to come to an end?

increase in estrogen levels stimulating the anterior pituitary gland to reduce the levels of follicle stimulating hormone

What happens when there's a spike in estrogen at a time of ovulation?

stimulates hypothalamus which secretes more gonadotropin release hormone , this causes teh anterior pituitary gland to release more LH and FSH,

What is thought to be the cause of ovulation?

increased luteinizing hormone levels

What does corpus luteum secrete?


Describe the Luteal Phase

1. corpus luteum formed
2. produces progesterone
3. causes development of uterus for sustaining embryo
4. negative feedback on anterior pituitary gland/hypothalamus
5. decreases LH production and degeneration of corpus luteum
6. lacteal phase over and bursting of blood vessels and degeneration of uteral lining

Describe Day 1-5 of a woman's month

blood vessels rupture, menstruation
low estrogen and progesterone, disintergration of uterine lining

Describe Day 6-13 of a woman's month, what is this phase also called?

Increased production of estrogen by ovarian follicle, (follicular phase)
endometrium becomes thicker and more vascular due to estrogen, called proliferative phase IMPORTANT Ovulation occurs

Describe Day 15-28 of a woman's month, what is this phase called?

corpus luteum causes endometrium to double in thickness due to more progesterone secretions and uterine glands produce thick mucus secretion
if not pregnant corpus luteum degenerates, blood vessels burst and uterine lining breakdown

What is the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle?

during the follicular cycle where increased estrogen levels cause the thickening of the uterus

What is the secretory phase of the uterine cycle?

part of the luteal cycle where due to increased progesterone levels the uterus releases a thick mucus

Describe the development of an embryo

1. fertilized egg
2. embeds itself on endometrial layer days after fertilization
3. placenta forms from both maternal and fetal tissues
4. provides exchange in molecules between fetal and maternal blood

What hormone does the placenta produce?

HCG, human chorionic gonadotropic hormone

How does HCG affect the body?

it prevents degeneration the corpus luteum which prevents the drop in estrogen and progesterone

What effects does the placenta have when it produces estrogen and progesterone during its development?

1. maintains endometrium
2. shut down anterior pituitary gland to prevent new follicles from forming and menstruation stops

Where is oxytocin produced?

in hypothalamus and stored in posterior pituitary gland

What are the effects of oxytocin on the body?

smooth muscle contraction in the uterus, causes labor and stimulates lactation

What is unique about the hormone oxytocin compared to the gonadotropin hormones?

it has a positive feed back

How do you know if your wife about to pop a baby out?

1. amnion, amniotic fluid, breaking water
2. uterine contractions
3. plug of mucus to prevent bacteria from entering during pregnancy

What prevents bacteria from entering the vagina during pregnancy?

plug of mucus

What is the function of the placenta?

waste removal, gas exchange and nourishment of fetus

Which blood vessel brings blood rich in nutrients and oxygen to the fetus?

umbilical vein

What blood vessels take blood full of waste CO2 away from the fetus?

umbilical artery

What carries blood to and away from the embryo?

umbilical veins and arteries

What does the foramen ovale do for the embryo?

allows passage of blood from right to left atrium to bypass lungs
opening between right and left atria

What does ductus arteriosus do for the embryo?

blood vessel connecting pulmonary artery to aorta allowing blood to bypass lungs

What does the ductus venosus do for the embryo?

between umbilical vein and inferior vena cava
allows blood to bypass liver

What causes blue baby condition?

flap not covering oval opening
between umbilical vein and inferior vena cava

What are four features in circulation that humans do not have that fetuses do?

1. umbilical veins and arteries
2. oval opening
3. artial duct
4. venus duct