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36 Cards in this Set

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Function of the Renal System?
The function of the renal system is to regulate the volume, composition and pH of body fluids.
The functional unit of the kidney is
The Nephron
Which way does water move in osmosis?
TOWARDS the higher concentration of salt.
What forms the "strainer" in the kidney?
The glomerular capillary, the basal membrane, and visceral layer of Bowman's capsule- the podocytes.
What does autoregulation keep constant?
The amount of fluid that enters Bowman's capsule (the glomerular filtration rate, or GFR)
What is the GFR
The Glomerular Filtration Rate, the total amount of fluid that enters Bowman's capsule and then the proximal convoluted tubule (in all the nephrons)
What does the filtrate look like?
Like plasma, but no large proteins can get through the filter.
Is glucose found in the filtrate?
Yes, it flows freely through the filter and is found in the filtrate,
What pressure forces fluid OUT of the glomerular capillary?
The hydrostatic pressure in the capillary, just like any other capillary
Which pressure pulls fluid back into the glomerular capillary?
The COP, or colloid osmotic pressure. The hydrostatic pressure in Bowman's capsule also pushes fluid back into the capillary.
What does the hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capsule do?
It opposes the formation of filtrate- the higher this pressure, the LESS filtrate is formed.
What gives rise to the colloid osmotic pressure?
Albumin in the capillary provides the colloid osmotic pressure
What pressure does the body change to change the GFR?
The hydrostatic pressure in the capillary
What can happen to material in the renal tubules?
It can be filtered only,
filtered and partially reabsorbed,
filtered and completed reabsorbed, or
filtered and secreted (more added by renal tubular cells)
How much glucose is found in the urine?
Normally all the glucose that is filtered is reabsorbed, so none!

Is glucose found in the urine

No, it is filtered, but completely reabsorbed.

How many nephrons are in a kidney?
One million in each kidney.
What is the renal blood flow in 24 hours?
Around 1,500 liters
What is a normal GFR in ml / minute?
Around 125 ml/ min
Which substances might you expect to be filtered and completely reabsorbed by the renal tubules?

Substances that the body needs to retain, like glucose and amino acids.

What substances would you expect to be filtered, not absorbed, and secreted by renal tubular cells?

Substances that the body needs to excrete in large amounts, like H+ and K+

What substances would you expect to be filtered, and partially absorbed by renal tubular cells?

Substances that need to be regulated in body fluids, like Na+

What substances would you expect to be filtered, and not absorbed by renal tubular cells?

Substances that the body needs to excrete, like creatinine (a muscle breakdown product)

What detects the flow rate in the nephron and signals the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

The macula densa in the distal convoluted tubule.

The juxtaglomerular apparatus (dilates, constricts) the afferent arteriole to increase the GFR.
Dilates
Renin is released from the juxtaglomerular apparatus. When angiotensin is formed, what effect does it have on the renal corpuscle?
Constricts the efferent arteriole
Renin is released from the juxtaglomerular apparatus. When angiotensin is formed, what effect does it have on the GFR?
Increases the GFR by constricting the efferent arteriole.
Consider glomerular capillary dynamics. What would an increase in Albumin in plasma do?
It would increase the COP, and so reduce GFR
What parts of the nephron have fluid that is al
ways the same osmolarity as plasma?
The Proximal Convoluted Tubule
ADH works on what parts of the nephron?
The Distal Convoluted Tubule and Collecting Duct
What is the effect of ADH on the fluid in the nephron?
It INCREASES the osmolarity by allowing water to be pulled out by the hyperosmolar renal medulla
What causes the hyperosmolar environment in the renal medulla?
The countercurrent mechanism
Without ADH, the fluid in the Distal Convoluted Tubule and Collecting Duct is ? Osmolar?
Lower osmolarity than plasma
With high levels of ADH, the fluid in the Distal Convoluted Tubule and Collecting Duct is ? Osmolar?
Higher osmolarity than plasma
What happens in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle?
Na+ is pumped, but water cannot follow
What substance regulates the final concentrations of Na+ and K+ in the kidney?
ALDO in the Distal Convoluted Tubule