• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A 12-year-old male presents to the ED with complaints of anorexia, weight loss, and persistent cough, with nocturnal coughing fits that have been waking him from sleep for the past three weeks. He denies fever, chills, myalgia, sore throat, or rhinorrhea. The patient presented to his primary care physician one week prior with the same complaint, and was treated with amoxicillin and bronchodilator therapy. His chest x-ray was negative for infiltrates at that visit. The patient's symptoms did not improve with this regimen. The cough became more frequent, sometimes causing emesis. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Infection with Bordetella pertussis in the paroxysmal stage

Paroxysmal stage of pertussis?

  • lasts 4-6 weeks
  • repetitive, forceful coughing episodes followed by massive inspiratory effort
  • whoop sounding cough
  • conjuctival hemorrhages
  • pneumothoraces
  • increased intrathoracic and ICP

Treatment of pertussis?

  • Azithromycin
  • Clarithromycin
  • Erythromycin

T/F: reactive airway disease does not improve with bronchodilator therapy?


Catarrhal stage of pertussis?

1-2 weeks

indistinguishable from URI

Mycoplasma pneumonia associated with..?


findings on CXR and lung exam


Seal bark

week or less


A 12-month-old previously healthy girl presents with cough and mild subcostal retractions. She is afebrile, and physical exam reveals asymmetric wheezing. Chest x-ray demonstrates unilateral air trapping. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Foreign body aspiration


bark cough

subglottic inflammation

inspiratory stridor

Pneumonia findings?

increased WOB




decreased breath sounds/area of consolidation

CXR -> lobar diffuse infiltrates

Acute bronchiolitis findings?



CxR atelectasis

diffuse opacities from bronchiole obstruction


  • bilateral wheeze
  • CXR -> global air trapping
  • hyperinflated lungs
A 10-month-old infant is brought to the Peds ED by her parents, who say she has been coughing persistently for the last three hours. The parents were watching a movie at home when they first noticed their daughter coughing. Patient is a vaccinated, well-nourished infant in moderate distress with retractions, nasal flaring, and grunting. On auscultation, you immediately notice diminished breath sounds in the right lung with normal breath sounds on the left. What other associated physical exam finding do you expect to hear?
Asymmetric breath sounds and wheezing


URI e.g. epiglottitis

Asymmetric breath sounds and wheezing

foreign body aspiration







Bronchial breath sounds


Susie is a 3-year-old girl brought into the clinic by her mother because she has a gradually worsening cough and she has been having trouble breathing. Her mother says Susie sounds like she is barking when she coughs. Susie is up to date with her vaccinations. Susie’s mom always watches her when she’s playing. On physical exam, you note that Susie has inspiratory stridor. She does not have wheezing, there are no retractions, and she has symmetrical breath sounds. No pseudomembranes are appreciated on physical exam. What is Susie’s most likely diagnosis?

Croup (laryngotracheobronchitis)

Pertussis sound


Joe, a previously healthy 11-month-old male with 5-day history of a “cold,” is brought to the ED by mom for one day of acute worsening cough and intermittent wheezing. Per mom, the cough was initially dry but has become more “phlegmy,” making it difficult for Joe to breathe, particularly when he is feeding or more active. His immunizations are up to date, and he has no known allergies. His family history is significant for a 6-year old sister who was diagnosed with asthma four years ago. On exam, Joe is afebrile, mildly tachypneic with normal O2 saturation. He has prominent nasal flaring and mild subcostal retractions. He has clear rhinorrhea but no evidence of oropharyngeal erythema. Lung exam reveals decreased breath sounds and wheezes on the right. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Foreign body aspiration

Foreign body aspiration

  • acute onset of wheeze
  • asymmetric breath sounds
  • CXR -> decreased deflation on affected side
  • atelactasis (whiting out)
  • mediastinal shift towards affected side