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52 Cards in this Set

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Bouchard et al. (2000)

Behavioral Genetics


A: intelligence in MZT's and MZA's


P: 50 hours of testing and interviews


F: heritability estimate of 70%

Rosenzweig and Bennet (1972)

Brain Plasticity


A: effect of enrichment or deprivation


P: rats in different environments for 30-60 days


F: increased cortex thickness and heavier frontal lobe

Martinez and Kesner (1991)

Neurotransmitters


A: role of acetylcholine on memory


P: rats injected with scopolamine, physostigmine, or nothing and put in a maze


F: scopolamine rats slower with more errors

Scoville and Milner (1957)

HM suffered seizures from brain damage, had surgery to remove hippocampus, anterograde amnesia, no new memories

Money (1974)

David Reimer lost his penis in a circumcision, parents encouraged to raise him as a girl, interviewed the twins once a year to support the theory of gender neutrality

Kasamatsu and Hirai (1999)

Neurotransmission


A: sensory deprivation and serotonin levels


P: monks on a 72-hour pilgrimage, blood samples before and after


F: serotonin levels increased, activating the hypothalamus and frontal cortex causing hallucinations

Baumgartner et al. (2008)

Hormones and Behavior


A: role of oxytocin in trust


P: fMRI's during a trust game where some received oxytocin


F: placebo group showed less trust after betrayal, oxytocin participants had less response in the amygdala and did not change trust

Maguire et al. (2000)

Brain Plasticity


A: plasticity in taxi drivers


P: comparison of MRI scans


F: taxi drivers had a larger hippocampus

Gallese et al. (1996)

Mirror Neurons


A: research motor neurons


P: isolated a neural response that fired both when performing and observing an action


F: the brain acted as if carrying out the action when only observing



Iacobani (2004)

Mirror Neurons


A: whether observation causes stimulation


P: fMRI while looking at human faces with imitating at first and then only observing


F: the same brain areas were activated

Sacks (2007)

Clive Wearing suffered brain damage after a viral infection, anterograde and retrograde amnesia, 7-30 second memory, some procedural and semantic memory intact

Tierney et al. (2001)

Cognition and Biology


A: evaluate bilingual language compensation after infant brain damage


P: PET scans to compare narrative speech and signing between controls and MA who had a lesion in his left frontal lobe


F: MA's right hemisphere was more active than the controls, language function developed there

Scarr and Weinberg (1976)

Behavioral Genetics


A: contributing factors to lower IQ scores of black children


P: examined IQ scores of black or interracial children adopted by advantaged, whites


F: children brought up in low income families had a lower average, but eventually became the same as the high income children, niche picking

Fessler (2006)

Evolutionary Explanations


A: nausea in first trimester


P: healthy pregnant women ranked 32 potentially disgusting scenarios


F: women in the first trimester scored higher in sensitivity, morning sickness women experienced more disgust involving food

Curtis et al. (2004)

Evolutionary Explanations


A: patterns in disgust response


P: online study asked to rank disgust level for 20 images, 77000 multicultural participants


F: disgust was strongest for images which threatened the immune system, decreased with age

Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)

A basic structure of memory inspired by computer science, SM, STM, LTM, attention, coding, and rehearsal

Baddeley and Hitch (1974)


(Model)

A model of STM with central executive (control), episodic buffer (display), phonological loop (verbal and speech-based), and visuospatial sketchpad (visual and spatial info)

Baddeley and Hitch (1974)


(Study)

Memory


A: different components of memory


P: read and understand prose while remembering number sequences


F: increase in reasoning time with simultaneous memory task, significantly impaired task with sequences of 6 numbers, but not 3

Schema Theory

A cognitive theory of processing and organizing information, humans integrate new information with existing, stored information

Bartlett (1932)

Schemas and Culture


A: role of culture in schema processing


P: participants read and reproduced a Native American legend


F: memory changed, became shorter and more conventional

Allpart and Postman (1947)

Schemas and Culture


A: if schemas affect recall


P: W and B Americans shown an argument between well-dressed B and poorly dressed W with a razor followed by serial reproduction


F: with the W, the black man ended up being the aggressor holding the weapon

Anderson and Pichert (1978)

Schema Theory


A: influence on encoding and retrieval


P: burglar/house buyer scheme based on 72 points, distraction task, recall, half switch, recall


F: changed schema -> 7% more points on second recall and 10% increase in points related specifically to second, same schema did not recall as much

Loftus and Palmer (1974)

Reliability of Memory


A: effect of leading questions on EWT


P: How fast were the cars going when they smashed/collided/hit/bumped/contacted?


F: leading questions had an effect on speed estimations

Yuille and Cutshall (1986)

Reliability of Memory


A: accuracy in recall EWT with real eyewitnesses


P: 13 witnesses from theft and shooting interviewed 4-5 months later, two false leading questions (broken headlight and yellow panel)


F: misleading questions had little effect on recall, 10 said no broken headlight or yellow panel

Le Doux's Model of Emotion

Neurological Pathways for Fear Response


The short route: thalamus to amygdala


The long route: thalamus to neo-cortex to hippocampus to amydala


Effective, but inaccurate VS slow, but more appropriate response through evaluation

Gazzaniga et al. (2000)

Emotional Response


A: effect as a result of brain damage


P: emotional response in autistic children


F: impaired ability to recognize emotions from a set of facial expressions

Two-Factor Theory of Emotion

Physiological arousal and emotional interpretation interact to determine emotions. Strength of arousal determines intensity, interpretation determines which emotion

Schachter and Singer (1962)

Cognition and Biology in Emotion


A: two-factor theory of emotion


P: injected participants and put into groups (A informed, A misinformed, A ignorant, control) and two conditions (anger and euphoria)


F: participants given information on effects showed minimal changes in emotion because they had an explanation, the others used cues

Brown and Kulick (1977)


(Theory)

Flashbulb Memory


Emotion effects memory by enhancing it. Vivid and detailed emotional events appear to be recorded in the brain.

Brown and Kulick (1977)


(Study)

Emotion and Memory


A: how FBM works


P: interviewed 80 Americans with questions about 10 events and asked how often they rehearsed the events


F: JFK's assassination led to most FBM, African A's recalled more FBMs of civil rights leaders, most recalled family deaths

Neisser and Harsch (1992)

Emotion and Memory


A: accuracy of FBM


P: 106 students asked to report on the circumstance of their learning about the Challenger Space Disaster in 1986 after 24 hours and then 2 years later (only 44)


F: 2 years: 11/44 remembered the questionnaire and major discrepancies even with confidence

Zimbardo et al. (1995)

Social Self


A: reactions in difficult situations


P: simulated a prison with participants assigned to guard or prisoner, behavior observed


F: environment influenced guards to perform brutal and sadistic behaviors, conformed to social roles

Festinger et al. (1956)

Participant Observation


A: observe behavior of a doomsday cult


P: became part of the cult that believed they would be saved by flying saucers on 21.12, pretended to be believers


F: some members reasoned that their prayers saved them, others left



Milgram (1963)

Conformity


A: obedience to authority


P: told to administer fake electric shocks to a confederate who gave wrong answers


F: 65% of participants administered electric shocks to the highest level

Ross et al. (1977)

Fundamental Attribution Error


A: if FAE occurs even with acting awareness


P: assigned to game show host, contestant, or audience (asked to rank intelligence)


F: audience attributed the host's performance to dispositional factors rather than situational

Greenberger et al. (1982)

Self-Serving Bias


A: effect of performance on SSB in public/private


P: participants got scored on a task in private or public settings and were asked to make attributions for their scores


F: more likely to attribute good scores to disposition and bad scores to situation in public

Kashima and Triandis (1986)

Culture and Self-Serving Bias


A: cultural differences of SSB in Japan and US


P: asked to remember details of slides from unfamiliar countries and then explain performance


F: US students attributed success to ability, Japanese students attributed failure to lack of ability

Social Identity Theory

Based on the assumption that individuals strive to improve their self-image by trying to enhance their self-esteem based on personal identity or various social identities

Tajfel et al. (1971)

Social Identity Theory


A: demonstrate the minimal group paradigm


P: schoolboys randomly allocated to groups and were told to give rewards or penalties to other participants


F: demonstrated in-group favoritism and were willing to give higher rewards to their own group

Jane Elliot (1968)

Social Identity Theory


A: the effects of group bias on self-esteem


P: segregated a primary school class based on eye color. Bl were smarter, quicker, and more successful. Br were lazy, untruthful and stupid


F: Bl became bossy, arrogant, and more smart, Br became timid, submissive, and had worse performance

Snyder and Swann (1978)

Confirmation Bias and Stereotyping


A: investigate CB in stereotyping


P: females told they would meet an introvert or extrovert and had to prepare questions for them


F: came up with questions that confirmed their perceptions of introverts and extroverts

Aronson and Steele (1995)

Stereotype Threat


A: effect of ST on performance


P: 30 min verbal test to AA's and EA's told it was a test of their abilities or just a laboratory task


F: AA's scored worse than EA's when told it was testing abilities, but better for the laboratory task

Bandura (1963)

Social Learning Theory


A: if children would imitate aggression modelled by adults and the effect of gender


P: exposed to an adult model who beat up a doll or built toys and was same or different sex, they were then placed in a room with the doll


F: observers of aggression were more aggressive and girls were more likely to imitate verbally

Charlton et al. (2002)

Social Learning Theory


A: whether St. Helena children would exhibit more aggressive behavior with TV (1995)


P: observed before and after the introduction of TV through cameras and interviews


F: no increase in aggressive or antisocial behavior

Dickerson et al. (1992)

Foot-in-the-Door


A: investigate FITD


P: asked students to sign a poster and take a survey about water usage and wastage and then monitored shower times


F: participants showered an average of 3.5 minutes, shorter than dorm students

Cialdini et al. (1975)

Door-in-the-Face


A: investigate DITF


P: asked students to chaperone a zoo trip with 83% refusal, tried again by asking them to work two hours a week for two years first


F: 100% refused the job and about 50% agreed to chaperone the zoo trip

Asch (1951)

Conformity


A: influence of perceived group pressure


P: 1 participant and 7 confederates asked to match lines based on lengths, confederates gave unanimous wrong answers plus a control


F: 0.7% errors in control, 75% gave at least one wrong answer in experimental group

Sherif (1936)

Conformity


A: conformity to perceived group norm


P: used the autokinetic effect and asked participants to estimate the light's movement in groups or alone


F: estimated with their own frame of reference when alone and used other's estimations when in groups which continued when alone

Cultural Dimensions

Individualism vs Collectivism: measure of preferance over working alone or in groups, indication of degree of social integration


Masculinity vs Femininity: depicts the degree to which masculine traits are preferred to female characteristics

Bond and Smith (1996)

Individualism vs Collectivism


A: effect of culture on conformity


P: meta-analysis of 133 conformity studies in 17 countries using the Asch paradigm


F: individualistic countries have a lower rate of conformity (US, UK, France) compared to collectivist societies (Fiji, Brazil, Hong Kong)

Mead (1935)

Masculinity vs Femininity


A: compare M and F traits in New Guinea tribes


P: covert observation of three tribes


F: 1: same sensitive behavior in both genders, 2: both genders aggressive and ruthless, 3: females with more dominant traits and males with more feminine traits

Hofstede (1967-73)

Cultural Dimensions


A: identify traits through classification of behavior according to culture


P: surveyed 60000 employees from 50 countries


F: identified multiple dimensions (power distance index, uncertainty avoidance index, long- and short-term orientation, indulgence vs restraint, I vs C, M vs F)