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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define psychology.
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Wilhelm Wundt
Known as the father of psychology. wrote the first text book and the first school of thought, Structuralism.
Define structuralism.
the focus on breaking down mental processes in the most basic component.
William James
First american psychologist. his first school of thought is functinalism.
Define functionalism.
the focus of mental processes as a whole.
Edward Titchener
Wundt's student
Sigmund Freud
father of psychoanalysis
John Watson
founder of behaviorism
B. F. Skinner
his work had profound influence in behaviorism.
Perspectives of psychology
1. biological
2. psychodynamic
3. behavioral
4. humanistic
5. cognative
6. cross-cultural
7. evolutionary
Biological perspective
study of the physiological mechanism in the brain and nervous system that organize and control behavior.
Focuses of biological psychology
1. individual neurons
2. areas of the brain
3. specific functions like eating, emotion, or learning
Psychodynamic perspective
emphasizes on the role of the unconscious mind, early childhood experiences, and interpersonal relationships to explain human behavior.
Behavior perspective
focuses on learned behavior:
1. classical conditioning (Pavlov and Watson)
2. operant conditioning (Skinner)
3. observational learining (Bandura)
Humanistic perspective
empheasis on the role of motivation on thought and behavior. influence greatly by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.
Cognitive perspective
how knowledge is acquired, orginized, remembered, and used to guide behavior.
Cross-Cultural perspective
researchers looking at human behaviors accross different cultures.
Evolutionary perspective
the study of how evolution explains physiological processes,. they aid in survival and reproduction.
Goals of psychology
1. describe
2. explain
3. predict
4. control (influence)
Basic research
to increase scientific knoledge base, and to find theoretical truth and understanding.
Applied research
for the purpose of solving practical problems and improving the quality of life.
Scientific method
1. formulate testable questions
2. design study to collect data
3. analyze data
4. report results
tenative explainations for observed findings
Descriptive research methods
1. naturalistic observation
2. laboratory observation
3. case study
4. survey research
Naturalistic observation
obersvation and record of behavior in it's natural form
Laboratory observation
observation and record of behavior in a lab (more controlled)
Case study
a depth study with one or a few participants to provide a descrption of behavior or disorder.
Survey research
interviews and/or questionnaires to gather information
direct way to test a hypothesis about a cause and effect between factors
Independent variable
controlled by the experimentor
dependent variable
the other is observed and measured
experimental group
group exposed to the independent variable and treatment
control group
same as experimental group, without being exposed to the independent variable
correlation method
to establish the relationship between two characteristics, events or behaviors
correlation coefficient
numerical value the indicates strength and direction of the relationship (always between -1.00 and +1.00)