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56 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what are Erik Erikson's first 4 stages of developments?
-Trust vs Mistrust (birth-1yr)
-Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt (around age 2)
-initiative vs guilt (preschool years)
-industry vs inferiority (elementary years)
what does attachment mean?
a feeling that binds one to a person, thing, cause, ideal, or the like; devotion; regard
what does temperament mean?
1) the combination of mental, physical, and emotional traits of a person; natural predisposition
2) unusual personal attitude or nature as manifested by peculiarities of feeling, temper, action, etc. Often with a disinclination to submit to conventional rules or restraints
what are the four parenting types?
authoritarian, authoritative, neglectful and indulgent
what type of parenting is "authoritarian"?
restrictive, rule orientated, punitive, no verbal exchange
how do children how have been parented by an "authoritarian" end up?
-lacks social ability
-will be incompetent in areas because they fear comparison
-they fail to initiate activity/community
what does it mean to be an "authoritative" parent?
-they urge children to be independent but still provide limites
-they allow for individuality, allow for verbal exchange, and are warm and nurturing
how do they children turn out who have been parented by an "authoritative"?
they are socially competent and responsible and self reliant
how do "neglectful" parents parent?
how do children who were parent "neglectfully" turn out
lack self control and do not handle independence well
how do parents parent "indulgently"
highly involved with their children but don't have a lot of demands
how do children turn out who have been parented "indulgently"?
lack self control and always expect to get their way
what does gender identity mean and when do kids acquire it?
the sense of being male or female; 3 yrs old
what is gender role?
set of expectations that prescribe how females should think, act and feel
biological influences include....
your 23rd chromosome (xx or xy)
what are social influences on children?
toys, pink and blue treatment, activities, careers, hair styles;
kids learn their gender roles through observation and imitation
what are cognitive influences?
once they see what mom/dad does, then you will start to organize your world around your gender which is rewarding or satisfying to you
what occurs during puberty?
skeletal maturation:
-testosterone doubles in females
hits females at around 10 1/2 yrs
-estrogen doubles in males
hits males at around 12 1/2 yrs
what happens with testosterone?
male's increase 18 fold during puberty
-cues the development of their genitals, increase in height and voice change
wha happens with estradiol?
increase 18 fold during puberty and cues development of breasts, skeletal development and uterine
what are the 2 forms of cognitive development and who is the person behind them?
-formal operational thought: 11-15: more idealistic, logical, abstract
-adolescent egocentrism: a belief that others are as preoccupied with you as you are
characteristics: unique, indestructible, perform attention seeking behavior
what are the myths behind parent-teen relationships?
-teens detach themselves from parents and move in to an isolated world of peers
-parent teen relationships are intense, filled with conflict, and highly stressful
what are the truths behind parent-teen relationships?
secure relationships with parents equals secure relationships with peers and vice versa
what is erikson's 5th stage of development?
identity vs identity confusion
what are the levels of Kohlberg's moral development?
-preconventional level of moral reasoning
-conventional level
-post-conventional level
what is the preconventional level of moral reasoning?
the lowest level of moral thinking where values are not internalized: all decisions are made based on rewards and punishments, environment
what is the conventional level of moral reasoning?
an intermediate level of internalization. Still is external, take in the standards of others and internalize them
what is the post-conventional level of moral reasoning?
completely internalized: weighs moral options, sees alternative modes of decision making, choose their own consequence
what occurs during early adulthood in physical development?
people are at their peak performance and at their healthiest physically
what occurs during middle adulthood in physical development?
starting to see a slow decline physically in a lot of areas: movement, cholesterol, eyes, ears etc
what occurs during early and middle adulthood of cognitive development?
come in to adulthood with a more systematic and realistic approach to life than adolescent: less idealistic
-memory begins to decline unless they are active in using their imagination
what are erikson's 6th and 7th stages?
-intimacy vs Isolation: if identity is formed, then a person can move in to intimacy
-generativity vs stagnation (occurs during middle adulthood): a feeling of needing to assist the next generation vs a feeling of having done nothing for the next generation
what happens to the people in late adulthood during physical development?
-the more active they are, the happier and healthier they are
-everything is on a decline, but if they are able to keep active for as long as they can they will prolong their life
what is alzheimer's disease?
degenerative, irreversible brain disorder that affects memory and social behavior: affects over 2 million people in the US
what happens to cognitive development during late adulthood?
they can outperform early adults in general knowledge and wisdom unless the test is timed
socioemotional development of late adults...quote by kierkegaard?
"life is lived forward but understood backward"
integrity vs despair
-late adulthood is a time of reflection
-integrity: seeing life as one well lived
-despair: a life of regrets
death and dying: what are Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's stages?
denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
what are motivations?
involves why people think, feel and behave the way they do
what are biological influences of motivation?
-instincts: innate, biological determinate of behavior
-drive: an aroused state that occurs because of a physiological need
-need: deprivation that energizes the drive to eliminate or reduce the deprivation
what are the behavioral/sociocultural Influences of motivation?
incentives: positive or negative external stimuli that motivates behavior
what are the hierarchy of motives by abraham maslow?
-physiological needs
-safety needs
-need for love and belongingness
-need for esteem
-cognitive needs
-aesthetic needs
-need for self-actualization: the development to one's full potential as a human
what are the biological factors of hunger?
blood glucose (sugar) levels
what are the eternal and cognitive factors of hunger?
-internal cues: hunger pains and blood sugar
-external cues: how a food smells, taste, looks
-schachter: the difference between normal weight people and obese people are the cues that they listen to the most
-using self control and exercise
what are the four phases of the human sexual response cycle?
excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
what is intrinsic motivation
a desire to be competent to do something for it's own sake
what is extrinsic motivation
behavior impacted by external rewards and punishments
what are the three levels of performance orientation?
-helpless orientation: play the victim trapped by difficult tasks, make decisions based on their lack of ability
-mastery orientation: ability and outcomes aren't really a factor; they're more concerned with the process, the journey
-performance orientation: very concerned with outcomes: winning is everything and happiness comes form winning
what does bandura say about goal setting?
having immediate goals can generate satisfaction based on achievement
what is self-efficacy?
belief that one has mastery over a situation and can produce positive outcomes
what are the four main ways to imporve self esteem?
-identify the cause of low self esteem
-finding emotional support and social approval
-achievement: finding out what you're good at
-finding healthy ways to cope that will always improve your self esteem
what is emotion?
a feeling or affect that involves physiological arousal, conscious experience and over behavior
what are the 4 dimensions of emotion?
-positive or negative
-primary or mixed
-many emotions are polar opposites
-emotions vary in intensity
what are the 4 contributors to happiness?
-good self concept
-close relationships
-engaged by work and leisure
what are the primary emotions that are followed with anger?
frustration, hurt and loss
what are the 5 ways to control your anger?
-wait before you react
-no rehearsing the reasons why
-get support from others
-help others, get the focus off yourself
-see the situation from another perspective