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129 Cards in this Set

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True or False: Changing people's attitudes hardly changes their behavior

TRUE. Changing attitudes hardly changes their behavior

What is an attitude?

A favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction towards something or someone, exhibited in one's beliefs, feelings or intended behavior

What is moral hypocracy?

Appearing moral without being so; disjuncture between attitudes and actions

True or false: What people say is often what people don't do

TRUE. What people say is often what they do not do

What is the Implicit Associations Test (IAT)?

Computer-driven assessment of implicit attitudes. The test uses reaction times to measure people's automatic associations between attitude objects and evaluating words. Easier pairings (and faster responses) are take n to indicate stronger unconscious associations. These explicit and implicit attitudes help predict behaviors and judgments. They predict better when evaluated together.

What part of the brain is active when we evaluate social stimuli automatically?


What is the Principle of aggregation?

Effects of an attitude on behavior become more apparent when we look at a person's aggregate or average behavior rather than an isolated act

Inducing new _____ induces new _____

intentions; behavior

What 3 factors lead to behavior intention? What does this lead to?

Attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control lead to behavior

What kinds of attitudes actually do predict intended and actual behavior?

Specific, relevant attitudes

What must we do to change habits through persuasion?

Alter attitudes towards specific processes

What is a role?

A set of norms that define how people in a given social situation ought to behave

What are norms?

Rules for accepted and expected behavior. They perscribe "proper" behavior. There are two types; 1) descriptive (what is commonly done in a given situation) and 2) injunctive (refer to what ought to be done in a given culture)

What do our actions depend on?

Social situations and dispositions

What are gender roles?

A set of behavior norms for males and females

What is the foot-in-the-door technique?

The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request

What is the lawn sign experiment?

- Researchers asked if they could put ugly, large driving signs on people's lawns. Only 17% of people said yes

- Asked if they could put a nice, small sign in their window instead; nearly everyone agreed to this

- 2 weeks later they re-asked for the big sign and 76% said yes

- Everything was voluntary

- Made use of the foot-in-the-door technique

- people who did small request were more willing to do the large one

What is the low-ball technique?

A tactic for getting people to agree to something. People who agree to an initial request will often still comply when the requesters up the ante. People who receive only the costly request are less likely to comply with it

Give an example of how an evil act can make a worse act easier.

Tell a white lie, you think it wasn't that bad, so you tell an even bigger lie

True or false: The more one harms or adjust attitudes, the easier the harm-doing becomes

True. The more we hurt those we dislike, the more we dislike those we hurt

What are some characteristics of self-presentation?

- express attitudes that match our actions

- May pretend attitudes to seem consistent

- Still express view to new people they don't know

What is cognitive dissonance theory?

Tension that arises when we are simultaneously aware of 2 inconsistent cognitions. For example, may occur when we realize that we have, with little justification, acted contrary to our attitudes or made a decision favoring one alternative despite reasons favoring another. We often adjust our thinking to avoid this.

What is the Insufficient Justification Effect?

reduction of dissonance by internally justifying one's behavior when external justification is insufficient. For example, people who were paid $1 to say a task was fun said they enjoyed it more than someone who was paid $20

What does Cognitive Dissonance theory focus on?

What enduces desires action rather than relative effectiveness of rewards and punishments adminstered after the act. Attitude follows behavior for which we feel some responsibility. This motivates people to internalize appropriate attitudes

What are the two options you can choose from to reduce dissonance?

upgrading the chosen alternative (speak positively) or downgrade the unchosen option (speak negatively)

Do collectivist cultures experience cognitive dissonance?

Yes, when their self-concepts are threatened. They are more often justifying choices they made for their friends over themselves.

What is self--perception theory?

The theory that when unsure of our attitudes, we infer them much as someone observing us - by looking at our behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs

What are the 3 "self" concepts and what is an example of them?

- Self-presentation (impression management): "I look like..."

- Self-justification (cog dis): "I know __ is bad, BUT..."

- Self-perception (self-observation) "I must like..."

True or false: Faces cannot help us sense how others feel.

FALSE. To sense how others feel, let your own face mirror their expressions. Facial expressions reflect our attitudes.

What is the overjustification effect?

The result of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may see their action as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing. For example, people who are paid to do a puzzle will alter enjoy doing them less than people who were not paid.

What kinds of motivations come from rewards (or lack of rewards)?

No external rewards --> intrinsic motivation. "I do this because I like it"

External reward --> extrinsic motivation. "I do this because I am paid to"

True or false: An unanticipated reward does diminish intrinsic interest; people can still attribute action to their own motivation

FALSE. An unanticipated reward does not diminish intrinsic interest

When does overjustification occur?

When someone offers an unnecessary reward before hand in effort to control behavior. The belief now is that the behavior was motivated by the reward

What is self-affirmation theory?

A theory that people often experience self-image threat after engaging in an undesirable behavior, and they compensate for this threat by affirming another aspect of the self. Threaten people's self-concept in one domain, and they will compensate either by refocusing or by doing good deeds in some other domain. Justifying actions maintains our self-worth and we need to remind ourselves about something good about ourselves in another domain

What is the idea behind subjective temporal distance?

Favourable past selves and outcomes feel recent and unfavorable seems distant

What is impact bias?

overestimate intensity and duration of emotional reactions to positive or negative events. People tend to overestimate the effects of negative events due to focalism (overestimate future thought of event) and immune neglect

What are the ABC's of attitude?

Affect (feelings)

Behavior Tendency

Cognition (beliefs)

What is the "File Drawer" model of attitudes

Attitudes are stored evaluations that a person retrieves from memory as needed but this is not the way attitudes really work (inconsistent attitudes, low attitude-behavior correlation, context effects)

What are inconsistent attitudes?

Inconsistency between affective and cognitive components makes it difficult to predict behavior. You can be high on thoughts but low on feelings which makes it inconsistent.

Describe the experiment involving the road trip with the Chinese couple

- took road trip in 1930's

- stayed at 66 hotels and ate at 184 resaurants

- only refused service once

- later the researcher wrote to these hotels and restaurants asking if they would allow Chinese people in their establishment

- 91% said no

- Attitudes and behaviors are mis-matched

What is the Constructionist Models of Attitude?

Attitudes are evaluative judgments that are constructed online (real time) drawing on info in the immediate context. It is created in the moment based on chronically and temporarily accessible information.

Discuss the experiment regarding assimilation and contrast in the German politician example

- Politician X was involved in a scandal

- People asked to think about one politician and they judged politicians in general as less trustworthy (this group included X)

- People judged other politicians like Y or Z as more trustworthy

- When you ask about a group as a whole, the trust goes down. But asking about individual politicians, the trust goes up (no longer includes X)

Discuss the experiment regarding thinking about positive or negative experiences in the past or present

- Participants though of positive vs. negative event in the recent vs distant past, then rated the life satisfaction

- When you think abut current satisfaction, likely to include recent and exclude past events

- If you are forced to think about things that happened a long time ago, you get a contrast effect; may make you think about something worse (good event)

What are some examples of IAT experiments?

- Anti-black iimplicit prejudice (reaction time to positive or negative words)

- Anti-black explicit prejudice

-Interracial interaction

What are some functions of attitudes?

- Knowledge (attitude provide meaning, making the world seem consistent and stable and allow us to predict future events

- Self expressive (attitudes we express help communicate who we are and make up feel good due to identity)

- Ego-defense (protect self-esteem and justify actions)

What is persuasion?

The process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes or behaviors. People see different views on topics based on given info. Persuasion can be good or bad

What types of messages can persuade people?

If the message is clear but unconvincing, no persuasion will occur. If the message is clear and has a good argument then persuasion may occur

What is the central route to persuasion?

Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favourable thoughts. Strong/compelling message is easier to persuade someone. If an argument is weak, it is easy to counter-argue. This route leads to more enduring change because it gets people thinking.

What is the peripheral route to persuasion?

Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness. Cues trigger acceptance without much thinking. Billboards and ads tend to use this tactic because they know they have very little time to convince people. Often creates a temporary or superficial attitude change

What are the four elements of persuasion?

Communicator, message, how the message is communicated and audience

Discuss the element of persuasion: Communicator

- who is saying the information affects how persuasive it is

- the speaker must have credibility

- "Experts" seems smart and knowledgable

- Speak confidently

- Perceived trustworthiness (look in the eye)

- Attractive

- Sympathize with people like us

What is credibility?

Believability. A credible communicator is perceived as both an expert and trustworthy. If a speaker does not have credibility, their message can be discounted

What is the sleeper effect?

A delayed impact of a message; occurs when we remember the message but forget the reason for discounting it

What is Attractiveness?

Having qualities that appeal to an audience. An appealing communicator (often someone similar to the audience) is most persuasive on matters of subjective preference

Discuss the element of persuasion: The message content

- Reason/emotion are more influential depending on the audience

- Rational appeals work best on educated and analytical people

- Message content effect depends on how attitudes were formed: emotion takes better to emotional appeals, reason takes better to intellectual argument

- Associated with good feelings (enhance positive thinking and link it to message)

- Evoking negative emotions like fear can be useful (likely to get someone to do something if they are afraid)

- Fear and a pleasurable activity though will create denial, not change

- Should acknowledge counterarguments if people will be exposed to them, otherwise no

- if opinions will be presented consecutively, want to present yours first. If time in between, present second

What are primacy effects?

other things being equal, info presented first usually has the most influence

what is the recency effect?

info presented last sometimes has the most influence. Recency effects are less common that primacy effects

Discuss the element of persuasion: how the message is communicated

- Appropriate channel of communication

- Spoken appeals not necessarily more persuasive

- Fluency shows believability, same with rhyming

- Persuasion decreases as issue significance increases

- Personal influence and talking to each other are usually greater than media influence

- 2 step flow of communication is important; opinion leaders express their views

- The more lifelike the message medium, the more persuasive the message

What is the channel of communication?

The way the message is delivered, whether face to face, in writing, on film or in some other way

What is the 2 step flow of communication?

The process by which media influence often occurs through opinion leaders, who in turn influence others

Discuss the persuasion element: The Audience

- People with moderate self-esteem are most easily influenced

- 2 explanations for accepting info: Life cycle explanation and generational

- Evidence mostly supports generational explanation (teens and 20s are important opinion forming years)

- Breeding counter arguments can be useful; distract someone just enough so they cannot fully counter argue your opinion (this can be seen in ads)

- People prefer taking the peripheral route

- Stimulated thinking makes strong messages more persuasive and weak less persuasive

What is the Need for cognition?

The motivation to think and analyze. Assessed by agreement with items such as "The notion of thinking abstractly is appealing to me" and disagreement with items such as "I only think as much as I have to"

What is a cult?

A group typically characterized by 1) the distinctive ritual of its devotion to a god or a person, 2) isolation from surrounding "evil" culture, and 3) charismatic leader. People often feel that they have to honor the commitment they made when they agreed to cult. Cults tend to exploit the foot-in-the-door technique

using the example of cults, explain the element of persuasion: the communicator

Charismatic, trustworthy and an expert

using the example of cults, explain the element of persuasion: the message

- warm and appealing

- "We have the answer"

using the example of cults, explain the element of persuasion: the audience

- Often under 25 with vulnerable attitudes

- middle class and educated, fascinated by ideals

- At a turning point in life (unemployed, away from home)

True or false: It is easier to accept persuasive messages than to doubt them

TRUE. it is much easier.

What are some tactics for resisting persuasion?

- Make a public commitment to your position (this makes you less open to what others have to say)

- Mildly attack other's positions to get someone to commit

What is the attitude inoculation?

Exposing people to weak attacks on their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they will have refutations available

Describe the experiment regarding smoking and peer pressure

- High school kids inoculate grade 7's against peer pressure

- sessions included responding to ads and roleplaying

- these kids were half as likely to smoke as kids not exposed to this

- reduce teen smoking and make a public commitment

Discuss the problem regarding children and TV ads

- kids fail to see difference between show and ad

- Trust TV ads

- Parents gets badgered into buying product

- This is seen as exploitation

- kids must learn to resist and counter tv ads

What are the 3 components of theory of planned behavior?

1. Attitude towards behavior

2. subjective norms

3. perceived control over behavior

_____ attitudes have a stronger correlation than ____ attitudes

specific; general

What is self-perception theory?

Figure out attitudes by watching behavior. We watch ourselves and see ourselves from an outside perspective

Discuss the environmental attitudes experiment regarding self-perception theory

- P's had clear cut strong or weak environmental views

- Ask them questions about their attitudes on the environment and their behaviors (using "frequently" or "occasionally")

- Participants that had weak attitudes about environmental concerns adjusted attitude to match how they answered the environmental question

What is the Theory of Self-Perception of emotion?

It is a two factor theory - infer emotion by observing internal behavior. Comes from experiencing arousal and labeling experience

Discuss the drug effects on vision experiment

- Participants got an injection and were told it was epinephrine which would lead to arousal, epinephrine but no info or a placebo and no info

- Did anger-inducing questionnare while waiting with angry confederate

- People who were given no info felt angry, had psychological affects

- People with info were not angry because they knew why they were feeling anxious

Which emotion tends to lead to more arousal?

Scared/fear. This can lead to misattribution of a situation if you are afraid; you may attribute the arousal to something else

Discuss the Insufficient Justification experiment

- Some participants offered $1 (insufficient justification) and $20 (overjustification) to tell someone that a boring study was interesting

- $20 said it was boring but because they were paid $20, they felt no dissonance telling someone else

- $1 felt dissonance

- Ended up having to change attitude to reduce dissonance

Discuss the experiment regarding self-affrimation and the lab coats

- Participants rated products

- Do you keep consistency to make it look like you made a really good decision?

- business vs. science major, lab coat vs. none

- Everyone that was not a science student with a lab coat changed their minds about product

- Lab coat makes people feel good about themselves if it is important to their future so did not change their minds

Discuss the Safe Sex experiment

- P's were asked to think about times they didn't practice safe sex or not asked to think about own past behavior

- All P's given opportunity to reduce dissonance indirectly by giving money to homeless

- Some P's could donate money or buy condoms

- No dissonance group was fairly even on choices

- Dissonance 1 choice: Most people helped homeless (feel better about selves)

- Dissonance 2 choices: Most people bought condoms (reduce inconsistency)

What is the elaboration likelihood model (ELM)?

Formal model of when people will be persuaded by a persuasion attempt. It predict when you are actually likely to change your mind

Discuss the experiment regarding ELM: Attitudes towards an exam

- P's heard a message proposing a comprehensive exam

- High/low relevance to them, high/low expertise on who told them and high/low argument quality presented

- High relevance condition took central route; attitudes were shaped by argument quality

- Low relevance condition too peripheral route; attitudes were shaped by source expertise

Discuss the photocopier study

- Asked either small (5 pgs) or large (20 pgs) request

- Say either "can I use it first", "because i'm in a rush" or "because I need to make copies"

- big request: not many people agreed but bit of sympathy for in a rush

- small request: people were persuaded, especially with a reason

- We are more likely to be persuaded by something even if the reasoning isn't solid

Discuss the experiment regarding the sleeper effect

- P's read argument with or without disclaimer, before or after message

- Report opinion immediately after and 6 weeks later

- Sleeper effect happened

- P's said they disagreed with message initially, but those in after condition believed it 6 weeks later

- Less likely to remember discounting cue 6 weeks later and just the fact

Discuss the experiment regarding exposure to people

- We tend to like things we see more often and develop positive feelings

- Photographed women students

- displayed original photo or mirror image

- Asked friends which they liked better; 66% liked mirror, 61% liked the original

- Participants and friends liked the view to which they had more exposure

Discuss the experiment regarding targeted persuasion: Attitude type

- P's looked at different ads

- Type of attitude towards product; cognitive based (vacuum) or affectively based (perfume)

- Favored ads that playcated to these bases were more favorable

Americans respond to _____ ads, Koreans respond more to _____

independence; interdependent

What is conformity?

A change in behavior/belief to accord with others. Would your beliefs be the same without a group around?

What is compliance?

Conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with social pressure while quietly disagreeing

What is obedience?

Acting in accord with a direct order

What is acceptance?

Conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressure

Discuss sherif's studies of norm formation

- Sit in a dark room and see a light that moves. guess how far it moves and repeat this many times

- Next day joined by 2 participants.. All give answers to what you thought

- Repeat group experience for a few days

- Group norm answers would typically emerge

- The truth is light never moved (autokinetic phenomenon)

- false belief perpeutated 6 generations long

- informational influence

- False beliefs would be perpetuated years later

What is autokinetic phenomenon?

Self motion. The apparent movement of a stationary point of light in the dark

What can mimicry do?

Make people like or help you. Mimicry often happens unintentionally and can include things like yawning, laughing and rubbing your face

What are some factors that breed obedience in the Milgram study?

- Victim's distance (if you can' see the learner, they appear distant and easy to abuse so you continue)

- Closeness/legitimacy of authority (physical presence of experimenter is more convincing and must be legit authority; rebel against illegitimate)

- Institutional Authority (more people obeyed when done at Yale than "research lab")

- Liberating effects of group influence

- channel factors (gradually escalate shock)

Discuss the power of the situation

- saying you would stand up for something when you wouldn't

- situation produces actual behavior

- when fragmented, evil becomes easier

- to explain is not to excuse

Explain a prediction of conformity: Group size

3 to 5 people elicits more conformity than 1-2

Explain a prediction of conformity: Unanimity

- Deflates social power of group to disagree

- People feel warm towards a person who does not conform

- Can give people the independence to stand up

Explain a prediction of conformity: Cohesion

- Minority opinion in group is more important than out

- More cohesive the group, more power over the members

What is cohesiveness?

A "we" feeling - the extent to which members of a group are bound together, such as by attraction for one another

Explain a prediction of conformity: Status

Higher status people have more impact

Explain a prediction of conformity: Public response

conform more when having to respond publicly than writing privately

Explain a prediction of conformity: No prior commitment

- people almost never back down when given option to reconsider

- once they have made a public commitment, stick with it

What are the 2 main reasons people conform?

1) to be accepted and avoid rejection

2) obtain important information

What is normative influence?

Conformity based on a person's desire to fulfill others' expectations, often to gain acceptance. Groups often reject those who constantly deviate (desire to be liked)

What is informational influence?

Conformity that results from accepting evidence about reality provided by other people. Other people can be a good source of info (desire to be right) and other people's information might be more correct than ours

What are 3 predictors of conformity?

personality, culture and roles

Explain a factor of who conforms: personality

internal factors rarely precisely predict specific action, better predict average behavior across many situations

- predicts behavior better when social influences are weak

- moods can affect if you conform or not

Explain a factor of who conforms: Culture

- cultural background helps to predict

- collectivist cultures are more responsive to other's influences

- also exist within countries

Explain a factor of who conforms: social roles

takes a cluster of norms to define a role

What is reactance?

A motive to protect/restore one's sense of freedom. Reactance arises when someone threatens our freedom of action. A "boomerang effect" can happen if freedom is threatened. We all want to be distinctive in the right ways; the wrong ways can make us uncomfortable

Discuss the Norms and Theft experiment

- 3 signs: one injunctive, one descriptive, third was no sign

- injunctive sign produced low stealing

- descriptive produced high stealing

- no sign was medium stealing

Discuss the experiment Norms and Littering

- Everyone had a handbill on their windshield

- P's saw confederate either walk by, litter (descriptive) or pick up the litter (injunctive)

- there were also two environment types: clean and littered

- even results when he walks by in both locations

- more likely to litter in littered area when he walks by and also litters in littered area

- slightly more inclined not to litter when he picks up the litter in the clean area

True or false: Norms often lead to prejudice

TRUE. There is a strong correlation

Discuss the racism in the lab experiment

- P's were white, east asian and south asian from ontario

- Saw black confederate bump white confederate

- he either said nothing, "typical, i hate when black people do that" or a rude racial slur

- P's then asked to pick a partner out of the confederates

- only less likely to pick white guy if he said something racist, otherwise usually picked

- P's picked the white guy regardless of what he said despite them saying they would not

What is an example of pluralistic ignorance?

"I have a question but I don't think anyone else does so I won't ask"

What are some psychological steps for pluralistic ignorance?

- realize own overt behavior does not math up with own private preferences

- mistakenly assume that others' overt behavior doesn't match theirs

- infer private norm closely matches public norm

Discuss the Reconciling Rwanda experiment

- People heard one of two radio programs: Reconcilition theme or healthy theme

- one year later, beliefs did not change listening to the reconciliation theme, but it did improve over the health theme

Discuss the Line-Judgment Study

- Which of the 3 lines is the same length as line X?

- Control P's got answer right almost 100% of the time

- In the practice trial, everyone agrees on the same line as matching X

- 3rd trial, confederate picks the wrong line

- Most people chose wrong line; only 24% never conformed

- no pressure to conform but did anyway

- normative influence

What is Informational influence most likely?

When the situation is ambiguous, in a crisis or other people are experts

When is normative influence most likely?

Group is important to you, closer to you in space and time and the group is large

Discuss the experiment regarding resisting (implied) appeals

- P's were recruited for first impressions study

- were told it was either important/not important undergrad or research institute research

- confederate gave P a coke or not

- given an unsolicited favor will people help confederate and rate them favorably

- in important studies, less likely to help when coke is given

- in unimportant studies more likely to help when coke is given

Discuss the pens and social class experiment

- Middle class and working class P's recruited and given a pen at end of their survey

- they would choose a pen

- confederate would then choose that pen or a different pen to do their survey

- working class P's liked their choice of pen better when someone else liked it

- middle class liked their pen more when it wasn't picked by confederate

Discuss the milgram study

- P's as teacher and confederate as learner

- shock learner when they mess up

- how powerful of a shock would they allow themselves to give?

- Original study: 65% went to max power

- with ethical modifications, (150 volts max), 70% continued to max

Describe the Psychological Violence experiment

- P's recruited to help with a job interview

- Distract the applicant by reading 15 harassing remarks

- The "applicant" had high stakes

- The applicant would plead with them to stop, not answer or get upset

- with researcher in the room, 92% said all 15 remarks; without researcher in the room, 0% said all 15

According to the textbook, what is the best criticism for the "filing drawer" model?

Attitudes are sensitive to the biases of memory as well as the context in which attitude is made salient

The factor that determines whether we call an attempt at persuasion "education" or "propaganda" is whether...

We believe them or not

Henry agreed to help his mother in law reroof her house even though he doesn't like her, doesn't like roofing and was getting paid very little for the job. After, he decided roofing wasn't so bad. What is his reaction the result of?

cognitive dissonance (he had to justify why he was doing the work)