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58 Cards in this Set

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What are the 2 approaches to defining "abnormal?"

Cultural Relativism and Harmful Dysfunction

Culture _ and _ dysfunction

What are the Pros of cultural relitivism?

1: culture has a clear role in shaping perceptions of "normality"

2: culture - bound syndromes seem to be specific to specific cultures.

There are 2 pros.

Ex 1: homosexuality

Ex 2: western culture of chubbiness

What are the Cons of Cultural relitivism?

1. Doesn't explain why some disorders exist in ALL cultures

2. Ignores relevant scientific info about abnormality (like how brain functions describe abnormalities)

3. Doesn't permit cross-cultural comparisons (ex: public execution in Europe was entertainment)

There are 3 cons.

What is "abnormal" according to Cultural Relitivism?

Abnormal is whatever deviates from cultural norms.

What is "abnormal" according to Harmful Dysfunction?

Abnormal behavior represents the failure of some designed function.


What are the Pros of harmful dysfunction?

1. There is a potential to compare and analyze behavior across cultures.

2. It is richly informed by biology, neurosciences, etc.

3. It still acknowledges a role for culture (via what is harmful)

There are 3 pros.

What are the Cons of harmful dysfunction?

There is not always a mechanism we can identify, and most identified mechanisms are only partially understood.

There is 1 con.

What is the function of oxytocin?

It alters the level of empathy for members of the IN-group.

Affects empathy...

What is an example of a designed function?


What are the two kinds of empathy and their function?

Cognitive - tell what they think/feel

Emotional - feel with them

Think and feel

How do SCIENCE and CULTURE affect harmful dysfunction?

SCIENCE tells us whether or not it's functional.

CULTURE tells us whether or not it's harmful.

Ex: science says that if you're hearing voices, you could be schizophrenic; culture says they're crazy and should be locked up.

What do supernaturalists believe?

Natural events = no conscious agent (the world obeys natural order)

Supernatural events = caused by an agent (demons/spirits)

What is the assumption of mind-body dualists?

"Real you" is an essence that is settled in the body


What did Paul Bloom say about Mind Body Dualists?

Deep down, EVERYONE is a mind body dualist.

This is believed of everyone.

Who was Thales?

Ancient Greek Naturalist

Not a supernaturalist.

What was Hippocrates known for? (6 things)

1. First to apply NATURALISM to the human mind/body.

2. 4 essential Humors (blood, phlegm, yellow bile, black bile)

3. These humors for shadowed the theory of neuro chemical imbalance.

4. Classification of disorders based on scientific observation (paranoia, depression)

5. Emphasized roll of stress and nutrition.

6. Promoted humane treatment of mentally ill.

1. Apply naturalism where?

2. 4 funny things

3. Funny things foreshadowed a theory

4. Classification of disorders based on?

5. Emphasize roll of _ and _.

6. How did he help the mentally ill?

What happened in the Middle Ages?

People lose interest in naturalism, in the real world, because they're focused on the afterlife.

Popular time to be religious...


"The witch's hammer" - burn women at the stake, drown them, if they survive then they're a witch!

Is she a witch?

What happened during the European Rennaisance?

Rediscovery of classical Greek texts from Islamic Middle East (which talked of naturalism)

Found some texts that spoke of the olden days...

Who was Avicenna?

A Persian genius who combined the supernatural and natural beliefs in saying: "abnormal people are ill, but not fully human."

Because of what he said, abnormal people are not evil, but are thrown in a cage.

Who was phillip Pinel?

Physician who made asylums in Paris more humane, helped man with PTSD "see the sun" by rescuing him from the basement of a crazy house.

Helped a man "see the sun."

Who was William tuke?

Quaker business man who came up with "moral treatment" rather than the previous medical model in england.

Goddaughter dies in asylum, so he builds one that follows his Quaker beliefs...

Who is Benjamin Rush?

"Father of USA medicine", came up with the alternative moral treatment

This allows patients to have work, exercise, community, etc.

Who is Dr. kirkbride?

Eliminated the medical Model and only used Moral Treatment for his Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane

Used one method, not the other.

Who was Dorothea Dix?

Teacher, first to use Mass media to raise awareness of mental illness.

Mental hygiene movement

Who was Emil Kraeplin?

Physician, first to classify bipolar and schizophrenia.

Also gave Mr. Alzheimer the place to look for the disease.


Syndrome where > 30 year Olds start to go crazy, then dimented

Cerebral syphilis, brain disease

What is brain damaging therapy?

Experimenting on the brain in order to cure diseases that had yet to be cured.

Ex: lobotomy, electric convulsive therapy

What is the psychoanalytic model?

Freud's approach known as the talking cure


What does the psychoanalytic model later become? And again after that?

Psychodynamic then CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy)

What is CBT?

Cognitive behavioral therapy, the most dominant mode of practice in the world

Widely popular

What is the behavioral model ?

Focus on rewards and punishments, change the environment to change behavior.

To shape the behavior of a child you offer _ and _.

What is the difference between syndrome and disease?

Syndrome is a definitive set of symptoms.

Disease is a symptom that we understand what is going on and how to treat it.

What is the dunning-kruger effect?

Incompetent leads to overconfidence

Learned last year, _ leads to _.

What is the RDoC?

Functions of neural circuits in the brain cause behaviors.

"The mind is what the brain does." Explains behaviors through...

What is the difference between anxiety and fear?

Anxiety is perception that something bad could happen, fear is that threat is happening now.

What is the job of the Prefrontal cortex?

It is the conscious perception of threat.

Prefrontal - perception

What is the job of the Cingular cortex?

Error detection, knowing if some thing's wrong

There's only a "single" right answer, so everything else is wrong.

What is the job of the amygdala?

Primal emotion

Amygdala, animal instinct.

What is the job of the hypothalamus?

Triggers fight or flight response

Hypo "under" - run and hide under something...

What is the job of the Locus Coeruleus?

Directly controls the SNS


What are the 4 F's that the Hypothalamus is in charge of?

Fight Flight Feeding Fornication

Given, given, something you need to survive, and something you crave

What is the difference between anxiety and panic?

Anxiety, body is "warming up" for f or f.

Panic is full blown state of f or f.

What is anxiety, biologically?

Activation of the Sympathetic Nervous System, regulated by 5 brain circuits.

5 brain circuits make up the _ _ _.

What is anxiety, cognitively?

The perception of threat, narrow attention, rumination.

What your mind is thinking and doing when your anxious. * 3 activities

What is rumination?

Dwelling on negative thoughts over and over


What is anxiety, behaviorally?

Motor agitation, avoid harm and risks


Ilardi's rule on phobias: _ always makes if better, _ makes it worse!

Non-traditional exposure, avoidance

His experience with spiders

What percent of the population has phobias?

12.5%, 1/8 people

What is the most important cause that not only makes something a phobia, but makes it abnormal?

Causes impairment of function

What is the cause of Phobias, according to the Biological model?

Our genetics are "prepared" to be afraid of things that instinctively make sense

ancestral fears as hunter/gatherers

What are phobias according to the Psychodynamic Model?

Phobia object is a symbol of inner conflict

Daddy issues are related to fear of snakes for their fallic shape

What are phobias according to the Behavioral Model?

Classical conditioning, blood pressure drops so you don't pass out

Vasovagal reflex!

What is Vasovagal Reflex?

When we encounter blood, our blood pressure drops due to empathy, mediated by parasympathetic nervous system


What are phobias according to the Cognitive Model?

Observational; how you interpret a situation can make it become a phobia

See someone get attacked by a dog, have fear of dogs.

What are 2 ways of treatment for Phobias?

Habituation and Graded Exposure

Lots of exposure, exposure over time

What is Habituation?

Decreased response to a stimulus based on repeated or extended exposure

Habitat - spend lots of time in it...

What is Graded Exposure?

Used clinically, gradual exposure

Start with a picture of a cartoon spider...