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40 Cards in this Set

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Who established the first psychology lab, and in what year, as well as where

Wilhelm Wundt, 1879, in austria, germany.

define "standard deviation"

Average amount each result of a test differs from the mean. E(R-M)

Who is the "founder" of experimental psychology

Gustav Fechner

***Describe the 5 major "paradigms" of psychology

behaviourism, psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive, biological

briefly Describe humanistic

Optomistic views of human nature, believes in "self actualization"



Describe behaviourism

Study of human behavior and the effects the our environment has on it

Describe Biological psychology

The study of the brain and neural pathways; the biological aspects of psychology

Describe cognitive psychology

Focuses on thought processes, emphasizes function over content

Describe psychodynamic

Pioneered by freud, claims all actions are guided by unconscious desires or feelings. Focuses almost entirely on the unconscious mind

What are the core principles of Psychology in respect to it's status as a science

The universe acts according to natural laws, These laws are discoverable and testable
Describe the scientific method
The scientific method beings with an observation, which is developed into a testable hypothesis, which is tested, and from which we can draw conclusions that can in turn refute or support the hypothesis
How would you define a "theory"
An organized system of assumptions and principles
What is psychologies scientific goals
To describe, predict, explain and control objects of study
in what way is psychology sometimes more complicated than other sciences
In psychology there is always a shifting human factor, which complicates the investigation of mental processes and behavious
Define "empirical"
Empirical indicates something is scientifically testable
what are principles of ethical research

-Informed consent must be obtained


-the utmost must be done to protect participants from discomfort and harm, and protect confidentiality,


-Participation must be voluntary


One can NOT use deception or incomplete disclosure UNLESS the REB is convinced the benefits outweigh the cost


-complete debriefing must be completed

What is a variable
Anything that can take on more than one condition
What does "operational Definition" mean
variables in a hypothesis must be precisely defined.
What are the two variables, give a brief description

Independant; the variable being altered/manipulated


Dependant; the variable that is measured, and is influenced by independent variable

What are confounding variables, name some


Variables outside the control of the researcher(s)
-experimenter bias, placebo effects

what is it called when a small example of a given population is taken for the purpose of research
a "sample"
How do we ensure a fair sample
random selection
Name the 4 descriptive research methods
Naturalistic observation, case studies, surveys and psychological tests
describe a case study and provide it's Pro's and cons

Study of a single person


Pro: Determines if specific treatments/therapies work well for this individual


Con: Often subject to Bias, can only be applied to a single individua, results are not relevant to others

describe a naturalistic observation and provide it's Pro's and cons

observation of human behaviour in it's natural habitat


Pro: Least obtrusive way of study, can observe the most natural results


Con: Still subject to researcher Bias, very time consuming

describe a survey and provide it's Pro's and cons

unobserved, client given responses, used both in person and at a distance.


Pro: Avoids observation biases, relatively inexpensive and quick


Con: Suffers from participant Bias, wherein the participant may choose answers they think the researchers want, does not show direction of relationships (Causality) - only that there is a connection

describe a psychological test

Assesment requiring a response from which we can gain insight into the client. Ex: Rorchach test.



describe "demand characteristic" and how it is avoided in experiments
demand characteristic is when the subject is aware of the hypothesis and changes their behaviour as a result. This is prevented by performing double blind tests in which neither the participant nor the experimenter are aware of the hypothesis, only of what is being asked of them.
in an experiment how can we ensure both the test group and the control group are fair
Random assignment is the most common method
How do you represent the correlation coefficient
R = +/- 1.00
If there is a positive correlation between two variables, what does that mean
If one variable is controlled in a positive way, the responding variable will also increase
What is a negative correlation
When the independent variable is increased, the dependant decreases. This is still a correlation, but in a negative sense
True of false: correlation = causality
false, we are only aware that there IS a connection, not that one variable necessarily provokes the change in the other
What is the "mean"
the statistical average of all the results of an experiment
How can the standard deviation be applied
A result can be considered "1,2,3..." Standard deviations away from the mean, and it can be used along with other statistical techniques to determine of a experiment is "significant"
What test is used to determine of a result is significant
The Null Hypothesis Significance Test
What result on the NHST indicates a result is significant, and what does that result mean
a result of less than %5 or P < 0.05, meaning that if the experiment were conducted 100 times the given results would occur only 5 times by accident

Name the significant psychological movements of recent years

Gestalt movement and structuralism.

Describe the gestalt movement.

Characterised by the belief that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts; that is that we tend to impose structure on what we see

Describe structuralism

A study or analysis of the individual components of conscious experience