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21 Cards in this Set

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Acetylcholine

A neurotransmitter that has many functions in the brain, including the promotion of neuronal plasticity

Acquired Equivalence

Prior training that two stimuli were equivalent increased the amount of generalization between them - even if those stimuli were superficially dissimilar

Category Learning

the process by which animals and humans learn to classify stimuli into different categories

combinatorial explosion

stems from the rapid expansion of resources required to encode configurations

configural node

Acts as a detector for the unique configuration (or combination) of cues

consequential region

Will novel stimuli have the same consequence as a training stimulus

discrimination

Perception of differences between stimuli

Discrimination training

One of two different (but similar) stimuli are presented, and the two must be differentiated between

Discrete-component representation

each possible stimulus is represented by its own unique node (or "component") in the model

Distributed Representation

stimuli are represented by overlapping sets of nodes or stimulus elements

generalization

transfer of past learning to new situations and problems

Generalization Gradient

a curve showing how changes in the physical properties of stimuli (plotted on the horizontal axis) correspond to changes in responding (plotted on the vertical axis)

Hippocampal region

Learning about relationships among stimuli in the environment is part of the special role in learning and conditioning served by the hippocampus and related structures - in rats and other small animals

Medial temporal lobe

Learning about relationships among stimuli in the environment is part of the special role in learning and conditioning served by the hippocampus and related structures - in humans

negative patterning

Response to the individual cues is positive while the response to the compound ("pattern") is negative (no response)

Nucleus Basalis

Projects to all areas of the cortex and amygdala

receptive field

the range (or "field") of physical stimuli that activate it

sensory preconditioning

the prior presentation of two stimuli together, as a compound, results in a later tendency for any learning about one of these stimuli to generalize to the other.

Stimulus representation

the form in which information about a stimuli is encoded with a model of the brain

temporal lobe

the part of the cerebral cortex lying at the sides of the human brain; important for the language and auditory processing and for learning new facts and forming new memories of events

topographic representation

nodes responding to physically similar stimuli (such as yellow and yellow-orange lights) are placed next to each other in the model